Darbyshire, S. J., Francis, A., DiTommaso, A. and Clements, D. R. 2012. The Biology of Canadian weeds. 150Erechtites hieraciifolius(L.) Raf. ex DC. Can. J. Plant Sci. 92: 729-746. Erechtites hieraciifolius, American burnweed, is a herbaceous annual in the Asteraceæe native to forest zones of eastern North America, but introduced to parts of Europe and the Pacific region. Confusion sometimes arises in distinguishing it from other weedy rayless composites in Canada, such as Senecio vulgaris (common groundsel) and Conyza canadensis (Canada fleabane). A pioneer therophyte species of forest zones, it occurs in large numbers when associated with major disturbances such as forest fires, but is also common in areas of smaller scale disturbance such as shores, forest edges and wind-throws. Soil conditions may vary greatly in nutrient content, moisture content, pH and salinity. In Canada, it is generally considered a minor garden and agricultural weed. It is most common in crops such as lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium spp.), cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon), strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa) and vegetable crops; however, it occasionally occurs in other field and forage crops. Impacts include a variety of problems contributing to increased production costs or crop yield losses, including herbicide resistance, resource competition, and as a reservoir harbouring crop pathogens. It has been valued as a medicinal herb for treating a variety of ailments. Populations may grow rapidly in response to disturbances typical of managed landscapes, but E. hieraciifolius can usually be effectively controlled by chemical, cultural or manual weed control tactics.
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Vol. 92 • No. 4