Hwang, S. F., Cao, T., Xiao, Q., Ahmed, H. U., Manolii, V. P., Turnbull, G. D., Gossen, B. D., Peng, G. and Strelkov, S. E. 2012. Effects of fungicide, seeding date and seedling age on clubroot severity, seedling emergence and yield of canola. Can. J. Plant Sci. 92: 1175-1186. The infestation of seeds by Plasmodiophora brassicae can result in the transmission of clubroot disease in canola. Five fungicides, including Dynasty 100 FS (azoxystrobin), Helix Xtra (thiamethoxam difenoconazole metataxyl fludioxonil), NebijinTM 5SC (flusulfamide), Prosper FX (clothianidin carbathiin trifloxystrobin metalaxyl), and Vitavax RS (carbathiin thiram), were evaluated under greenhouse conditions using artificially infested canola seeds for their efficacy in eliminating seed-borne inoculum. All of the fungicides significantly reduced clubroot relative to the non-treated control, but NebijinTM 5SC and Dynasty 100 FS were the most effective. However, in field trials with Cruiser 5 FS (thiamethoxam), Helix Xtra, Dynasty, Prosper and Sedaxane (pyrazole anilide) applied alone or as a mixture, none of the treatments reduced clubroot severity or improved seedling emergence or yield compared with the insecticidal control (Cruiser 5 FS) in the susceptible cultivar. Clubroot severity was lower in early-seeded canola compared with the late-seeded crops in 2 site-years. The younger seedlings had greater disease severity and reduced plant height and yield than did older seedlings in both resistant and susceptible canola cultivars. We conclude that a combination of approaches including seed treatments and manipulation of seeding dates in conjunction with deployment of resistant cultivars is necessary for the sustainable management of clubroot in canola.
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