Ma, Y., She, X. and Yang, S. 2013. Cytosolic alkalization-mediated H2O2and NO production are involved in darkness-induced stomatal closure inVicia faba. Can. J. Plant Sci. 93: 119-130. Darkness raised cytosolic pH, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) levels in guard cells while inducing Vicia faba stomatal closure. These darkness effects were prevented by weak acid butyric acid, H2O2 modulators ascorbic acid (ASA), catalase (CAT), diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) and NO modulators 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (c-PTIO), NG-nitro-L-arg-methyl ester (L-NAME) respectively. The data suggest that cytosolic alkalization, H2O2 and NO all participate in darkness-induced stomatal closure. During darkness treatment, pH rise became noticeable at 10 min and peaked at 25 min, while H2O2 and NO production increased significantly at 20 min and reached their maximums at 40 min. The H2O2 and NO levels were increased by methylamine in light and decreased by butyric acid in darkness. The results show that cytosolic alkalization induces H2O2 and NO production. ASA, CAT and DPI suppressed NO production by methylamine, c-PTIO and L-NAME prevented H2O2 generation by methylamine. Calcium chelator 1,2-bis (2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA-AM) and 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA) restricted darkness-induced alkalization, H2O2 and NO production and stomatal closure. We suggest that cytosolic alkalization is necessary for H2O2 and NO production during darkness-induced stomatal closure. H2O2 mediates NO synthesis by alkalization, and vice versa. Calcium may act upstream of cytosolic alkalization, H2O2 and NO production, besides its known action downstream of H2O2 and NO.
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