Cavalieri, A., Lewis, D. W. and Gulden, R. H. 2013. Residual weeds in winter wheat in Manitoba. Can. J. Plant Sci. 93: 1195-1200. Winter wheat production has increased from a few thousand to several hundred thousand acres in Manitoba over the past decade. In the summer of 2009, a mid-season weed survey was conducted to establish a benchmark of the residual weed community in winter wheat in three ecoregions in Manitoba. Field histories and herbicide management practices were also recorded for all 84 fields surveyed. Traditionally important weeds in other field crops such as green foxtail [Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv.], wild oats (Avena fatua L.) and wild buckwheat (Polygonum convolvulus L.) were also the most abundant weeds in winter wheat. A species never observed in production fields, waterpod [Ellisia nyctelea (L.) L.] was documented. Neither Japanese brome grass (Bromus japonicum L.) nor downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.), winter annuals often prevalent in winter wheat, were found.
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