Liu, L., Nan, L., Zhao, X., Wang, Z., Nan, H. and Li, H. 2015. Effects of two training systems on sugar metabolism and related enzymes in cv. Beibinghong (Vitis amurensis Rupr.). Can. J. Plant Sci. 95: 987-998. Eight individual sugars and four sugar-metabolism-related enzymes were investigated in the development of Vitis amurensis Rupr. ‘Beibinghong’ grape berries. Two different training systems, vertical shoot positioning (VSP) and Y-shaped training system (Y-shape) were applied. Sucrose contents in the two training systems were significantly related to the sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and sucrosynthetic activity of sucrose synthase (SS-s) in berries before veraison. The results show that throughout the veraison period, individual sugars, such as glucose, fructose, galactose and lactose, increased. Glucose and fructose were affected by both training systems, mainly at 15 and 16 wk (weeks after fruit setting). Training systems had no significant effects on the rhamnose, arabinose, galactose and maltose contents, and barely had an effect on the lactose content. The VSP training system mainly affected the sucrose content during the harvest period, while the Y-shape affected sucrose content mainly after 9 wk. During 2011 to 2013, VSP and Y-shape strongly affected the sucrose contents before veraison, and also affected the cleavage activity of sucrose synthase (SS-c) mainly between 5 and 8 wk; however, different training systems barely affected the soluble acid invertase (SAI) activities in whole berry growth. From the perspective of the whole berry development, the results showed that different systems had no significant effects on individual sugars and enzymes.
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