This study investigates changes in soil phosphorus (P) in different fertilization treatments applied since 1902 on Chernozem soil at a “Static Fertilization Experiment” in Germany. Total and plant-available soil P, and soil P balances were assessed at 0–30, 30–60, and 60–90 cm depth layers in unfertilized “Zero”, mineral “NK” and “NPK”, and combined mineral and organic “FYM NK” (farmyard manure NK) and “FYM NPK” fertilization treatments. P-use efficiencies were determined for each crop in rotation (sugar beet, spring barley, potato, and winter wheat). The 110 yr of P fertilization at rates between 22 and 55 t ha-1 yr-1 resulted in a significant increase of available P contents. P stocks increased up to 60 cm depth. Total P accumulation comprised 1.4 t ha-1 for NPK, 1.3 t ha-1 for FYM NK, and 3.1 t ha-1 for FYM NPK. Crops cultivation without P fertilization in Zero and NK treatments resulted in negative P balances and reduction of available P below recommended levels. Reduction of mineral P application rates after 1981, along with crop variety-dependent yield increases, resulted in an improved P-use efficiency. An organic fertilization combined with mineral N and K fertilizers (FYM NK) was found to be the most P-efficient treatment for Chernozem soils.
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