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Stauffer, F.W. & J. Stauffer (2017). The palm (Arecaceae) collections gathered by Bonpland and Humboldt in their American journey: origin and fate of the specimens and typifications. Candollea 72: 5–22. In English, English abstract.
The palm collections emanating from Humboldt and Bonpland's expedition to the Americas (1799–1804) are here studied to better ascertain the origin and taxonomic identity of the specimens gathered, the main botanists responsible for their taxonomic description, and the current repositories of these specimens. Moreover, we explore the relationship between specimens, the field notes contained in the “Journal Botanique”, and the descriptions published in Plantae Aequinoctiales (1805–1817) and the multi-volume Nova genera (1816–1825). In the frame of their American journey, Bonpland and Humboldt collected 25 palm specimens, representing 22 species, 19 genera and 4 palm subfamilies; several hypotheses are advanced in order to explain the fate of the six missing specimens. Most of the palms were gathered in present-day Colombia and Venezuela, whereas only few palms were gathered in Cuba and Mexico. The entry describing the royal Cuban palm (Oreodoxa regia Kunth) in the “Journal Botanique” is used as a case study to highlight the need to reevaluate the attribution of the authorities associated with the names proposed in the Nova genera. Misunderstanding of the different herbaria arising from the expedition has in some cases led to inaccurate typification of original material. Our study sheds light on specific cases and proposes neotypes for six taxa (Aiphanes praga Kunth, Cocos crispa Kunth, Corypha pumos Kunth, Mauritia aculeata Kunth, Oreodoxa frigida Kunth, Oreodoxa sancona Kunth), and lectotypes for four taxa (Ceroxylon andicolum Bonpl., Corypha maritima Kunth, Corypha tectorum Kunth, Martinezia caryotifolia Kunth). Arguably, the earliest checklist of Americans palms was noted down in the “Journal Botanique” by Humboldt and Bonpland, and is presented for the first time in this contribution.
Lachenaud, O., Q. Luke & B. Bytebier (2017). Keetia namoyae (Rubiaceae, Vanguerieae), a new species from eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Candollea 72: 23–26. In English, English and French abstracts.
A new species of Rubiaceae from the Democratic Republic of Congo, Keetia namoyae O. Lachenaud & Q. Luke, is described and illustrated. The species resembles Keetia tenuiflora (Hiern) Bridson and Keetia mannii (Hiern) Bridson, but differs from both in having alternate (not opposite) flowering twigs with stiff appressed hairs, few-flowered inflorescences, a longer corolla tube, and larger fruits. The species is only known from the type locality in Maniema Province, and is assessed to be “Critically Endangered” according to IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria.
Pscheidt, A.C., H.-J. Esser & I. Cordeiro (2017). A new species of Microstachys (Euphorbiaceae, Hippomaneae) in Paraguay. Candollea 72: 27–30. In English, English and Spanish abstracts.
A new species, Microstachys dasycarpa Pscheidt, Esser & Cordeiro (Euphorbiaceae, Hippomaneae), endemic to Paraguayan Chaco, is described and illustrated. The genus Microstachys A. Juss. is represented in this area by other three species : Microstachys corniculata (Vahl) Griseb., Microstachys hispida (Mart.) Govaerts and Microstachys serrulata (Mart.) Müll. Arg., with which this new species is compared.
Thulin, M. (2017). Lectotypification of Paramollugo nudicaulis (Molluginaceae). Candollea 72: 31-34. In English, English and French abstracts.
The typification of Paramollugo nudicaulis (Lam.) Thulin (≡ Mollugo nudicaulis Lam.) has been problematic as no original material has been found in P. The lectotype designated here, Commerson s.n. from Mauritius, is the single specimen cited by Lamarck in the protologue, and has been located in MPU.
Kainulainen, K., P.E. Berry & B. Van Ee (2017). Rediscovery of two species of Croton (Euphorbiaceae) from littoral habitats of eastern Madagascar. Candollea 72: 35–44. In English, English and French abstracts.
Two species of Croton L. (Euphorbiaceae) previously reported only from their type specimens, Croton chapelieri Baill. and Croton vatomandrensis Leandri, are reevaluated here and found to be geographically widespread along the eastern coastline of Madagascar. We provide updated descriptions, lists of selected additional specimens, distribution maps, and photographs of both species. We also designate an epitype for Croton chapelieri and a lectotype for Croton vatomandrensis.Croton chapelieri was the source of considerable taxonomic confusion, and we treat as synonyms here for the first time Croton aymoninorum Leandri, Croton louvelii Leandri, Croton daphniphylloides Radcl.-Sm., Croton daphniphyllum Radcl.-Sm., Croton daphniphyllum var. hirsutus Radcl.-Sm., and Croton rhododendroides Radcl-Sm. Croton chapelieri var. longepetiolata Radcl-Sm. is considered to be a synonym of Croton submetallicus Baill. With our improved understanding of the geographical ranges of Croton chapelieri and Croton vatomandrensis, we provide IUCN Red List conservation assessments for both species.
Schatz, G.E., R.E. Gereau & P.P. Lowry II (2017). A revision of the endemic Malagasy genus Beguea (Sapindaceae). Candollea 72: 45–65. In English, English and French abstracts.
A taxonomic revision of the endemic Malagasy genus Beguea Capuron (Sapindaceae) is presented. While Capuron in 1969 originally recognized a single, variable species (Beguea apetala Capuron), a careful reevaluation of all available material allows us to recognize ten species, nine of which are described as new, on the basis of numerous floral and vegetative characters. Material of only two of the new species was available to Capuron, and was included in his broad circumscription of Beguea apetala, whereas all material of the remaining seven new species has been collected since 1992. The nine species are illustrated by line drawings, and several species are documented by field photographs. The geographic distribution of each species is presented and mapped, and a preliminary risk of extinction assessment is provided using the IUCN Red List criteria.
Stone, R.D. (2017). Revised treatment of the genus Lijndenia (Melastomataceae, Olisbeoideae) in Madagascar. Candollea 72: 67–86. In English, English and French abstracts.
Lijndenia Zoll. & Moritzi (Melastomataceae, Olisbeoideae) is a small but widespread paleotropical genus of forest shrubs and small trees. In a previous treatment, Jacques-Félix recognized six endemic species of Lijndenia in Madagascar, namely Lijndenia danguyana (H. Perrier) Jacq.-Fél., Lijndenia lutescens (Naudin) Jacq.-Fél., Lijndenia melastomoides (Naudin) Jacq.-Fél., Lijndenia ramiflora Jacq.-Fél., Lijndenia roborea (Naudin) Jacq.-Fél. and Lijndenia terminalis Jacq.-Fél. The present work describes and illustrates three new Madagascan species: Lijndenia acuminata R.D. Stone, Lijndeniadarainensis R.D. Stone and Lijndenia densiflora R.D. Stone. The name Lijndenia lutescens (Naudin) Jacq.-Fél. is found to be illegitimate, and a new name Lijndenia memecyloides R.D. Stone is proposed. With these revisions, the flora of Madagascar now holds nine species of Lijndenia, for which a formal taxonomic treatment is provided including a dichotomous key. Lectotypes are designated for Lijndenia danguyana, Lijndenia memecyloides and Memecylon meeusei H. Perrier (treated here as a synonym of Lijndenia memecyloides). The conservation status of each species is assessed according to the IUCN Categories and Criteria. Given the extensive anthropogenic deforestation of Madagascar, one must consider the possibility that Lijndenia acuminata, Lijndenia densiflora, Lijndenia ramiflora and Lijndenia terminalis are already extinct because these four species have not been recollected within the last 50 years. On the other hand, the recent rediscovery of Lijndeniamelastomoides is remarkable because this species had not been seen since the year 1954.
Callmander, M.W., O.D. Durbin, H.W. Lack, P. Bungener, P. Martin & L. Gautier (2017). Etienne-Pierre Ventenat (1757–1808) and the gardens of Cels and Empress Joséphine. Candollea 72 : 87–132. In English, English and French abstracts. DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.15553/c2017v721a8
The intensive geographical exploration of the world, starting in the mid eighteenth century, resulted in the discovery of numerous plant species new to science of which many were subsequently introduced into cultivation in Europe. Etienne-Pierre Ventenat (1757–1808) contributed widely to this process. After the end of his curatorial and teaching commitments at Sainte-Geneviève Abbey in Paris he became an active botanist following in the footprints of his mentor Charles Louis L'Héritier de Brutelle (1746–1800). Ventenat was attracted by a trend of his period : publishing magnificent botanical books splendidly illustrated. He published three flower books from 1800 to 1808 on exotic plants recently brought to France from all over the world by various expeditions. Two flower books describe plants cultivated by Jacques-Martin Cels (1740–1806), an influential horticulturist who had built one of the most impressive plant collections of his period at Montrouge, just outside Paris. Another plant lover was Empress Joséphine (1763–1814). After her wedding with Napoléon Bonaparte (1769–1821), she bought in 1799 the splendid estate of Malmaison west of Paris. There the Empress assembled a remarkable collection of exotic plants, largely cultivated in her orangery and the “Grande Serre Chaude”. She engaged Ventenat to describe her luxurious collection and the artist Pierre-Joseph Redouté (1761–1841), later known as the “Raphaël des fleurs”, to depict the plants. This resulted in the famous flower book Jardin de la Malmaison, a masterpiece of botanical illustration. Ventenat, exhausted, passed away in 1808. His personal herbarium was bought in 1809 by Benjamin Delessert (1773–1847) whose herbarium was later donated to the City of Geneva in 1869. In his three flower books Ventenat treated a total of 343 plant names. A search in the herbaria of Geneva, Paris, Berlin and Madrid resulted in the finding of nearly all the original material relative to these names. A comprehensive list of names is provided here with comments on the origin of the plant material in the context of the explorations of this period, as well as information on typification and currently accepted names. In his three flower books Ventenat validated the names of 208 taxa (207 species and one variety) new to science : of these 67 are still accepted today as published while 52 are basionyms of names currently placed in another genera. Of these 208 names, lectotypification was not needed for 116 and the holotype has been found in G. For the remaining 92 names, 21 previous lectotypifications have been published but 5 of them needed a second-step lectotypification ; 70 new lectotypes have been selected and one neotype. Further comments on the typification of ten species are also provided.
The Geneva herbaria contain about 100,000 specimens collected in Corsica, resulting in the interest of the Geneva botanists, e.g. John Briquet (1870–1931) for this insular mountain. 40 % of the collections are represented in the institutional database, with 331 collectors, the most frequent being notably R. Deschâtres, J. Gamisans, and R. de Litardière. According to the database, the collection dates range from 1803 to 2015 with four major peaks during the 20th century. Ca. 250 types specimens are represented in Geneva. The geographical areas of the island are covered in a fairly homogeneous way, whereas the altitudinal belts from 0 to 100 m have the maximum coverage. All families and 95.7 % of specific and infraspecific taxa of native flora are present in the Geneva Corsican collections. Only 197 taxa of the wild flora of the island are absent, corresponding mainly to rare, very rare or extinct taxa. These are mostly xenophytes, generally subspontaneous. These herbaria contributed a paramount wealth of information to the knowledge of Corsican botany scattered in nine research fields : flora, taxonomy, cartography, historical data, recent plant invasions, future invasions scenarios, molecular systematics and population genetics, Red List, and high biodiversity areas.
Emile Burnat (1828–1920) bequeathed his herbarium to the CJBG in 1911. It has been kept separate from the general collection G under the acronym G-BU. It consists of 1,572 boxes containing 219,843 specimens. It is divided into three parts : the European herbarium (1,169 boxes), the Maritime Alps herbarium (379 boxes) and the Thuret herbarium (24 boxes), also from the Maritime Alps. Burnat's personal collections and the ones of his collaborators reach 42,727 specimens and are mainly from the Maritime Alps, Switzerland and Corsica. The European herbarium is organized according to the Nyman Conspectus. The most original part is the Corsican collection (about 8,000 specimens), which served as a base for Briquet and Litardière's Prodrome de la Flore Corse. The herbarium of the Maritime Alps, including some 55,000 specimens, is organized according to the Flore des Alpes maritimes of Burnat. It represents the backbone of that work. The Thuret herbarium, given to Burnat in 1875, is organized according to the Flore analytique des Alpes maritimes of Ardoino. It contains about 3,500 specimens. The whole Burnat herbarium is in excellent condition, and therefore represents an heritage and a scientific interest of great value.
Wijnands, D.O.†, J. Heniger, J.F. Veldkamp, N. Fumeaux & M.W. Callmander (2017). The botanical legacy of Martinus Houttuyn (1720–1798) in Geneva. Candollea 72 : 155–198. In English, English abstract. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15553/c2017v721a11
The contribution made by Martinus Houttuyn (1720–1798) to systematic botany has been widely underestimated. Fourteen volumes of the second part of his Natuurlijke Historie of Uitvoerige Beschrijving der Dieren, Planten en Mineraalen, published between 1773 and 1783, dealt with botany. Houttuyn popularized the Linnaean system and published more than 150 species and several genera. The historical context of this early botanical work is described. The history of the acquisition of Houttuyn's herbarium is outlined and an English translation of his auction catalogue is provided. We discuss Houttuyn's exotic herbaria from the Cape of Good Hope (South Africa), Ceylon (Sri Lanka), Java (Indonesia), and Japan. Houttuyn did not go abroad to collect plants. His herbarium consisted of material from many collectors, with the vast majority of specimens collected by Thunberg, but collections were also made by Auge, Radermacher, Richter, and possibly von Wurmb, while material from unknown collectors is also present. The main set of Houttuyn herbarium, which proves to be present in the Geneva herbarium, was originally part of the Burman herbarium bought by Delessert in 1801 on the advice of Augustin-Pyramus de Candolle. It is now incorporated in the Pre-Linnaean herbarium (G-PREL). Much smaller sets from Java are present in Leiden (L) and Amsterdam (AMD, now in L). In many cases Houttuyn described new species on the basis of Thunberg specimens before Linnaeus f. or Thunberg did, whose identical but later names are based on the specimens in their own herbaria, and although some might consider these to be homonyms, we regard them as isonyms because their types are duplicates of the same gatherings. A selection of 111 names are discussed, most of which were published by Houttuyn in the Natuurlijke Historie. Others are linked to Burman, Thunberg, Linnaeus f. or A.-P. de Candolle. A total of 57 lectotypes and one epitype are designated.
Maier †, E., M.J. PRICE & T.A. HEDDERSON (2017). A revision of Grimmia (Grimmiaceae) from South Africa and Lesotho. Candollea 72 : 199–230. In English, English abstract. DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.15553/c2017v721a12
A revision of Grimmia Hedw. (Grimmiaceae) from South Africa and Lesotho based on specimens housed in BM, BOL, G, PRE, and STU, as well as type material from B, BM, BOL, FH, G, H-BR, H-SOL, NY, and PRE, is presented. Thirteen species are recognized for South Africa and Lesotho : Grimmia consobrina Müll. Hal., Grimmia donniana Sm., Grimmia elongata Kaulf., Grimmia fuscolutea Hook., Grimmia kidderi James, Grimmia laevigata (Brid.) Brid., Grimmia longirostris Hook., Grimmia montana Bruch & Schimp., Grimmia orbicularis Wilson, Grimmia pulvinata (Hedw.) Sm., Grimmia pygmaea Müll. Hal., Grimmia sessitana De Not. and Grimmia tortuosa Hook. f. & Wilson. Keys based on morphological features, with an emphasis on costal characters, are provided. Each species is described and illustrated using key morphological and anatomical characters, such as transverse sections of leaves. Methods of specimen preparation are also explained and a glossary is supplied. Information on the geographical as well as altitudinal distribution of each species is given, with species distribution maps provided for the area covered by this study.