Antibodies against heat shock or stress proteins (Hsps) have been reported in a number of diseases in which they may be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease or may be of use for prognosis. Heat-induced diseases, such as heat cramps, heat exhaustion, or heat stroke, are frequent in hot working or living environments. There are still few investigations on the presence and possible significance of autoantibodies against Hsps in heat-induced illnesses. Using an immunoblotting technique with recombinant human Hsps, we analyzed the presence and titers of antibodies against Hsp60, Hsp71, and Hsp90α, and Hsp90β in a group of 42 young male patients who presented with acute heat-induced illness during training. We also examined the presence of antibody against Hsp71 in a second group of 57 patients with acute heat-induced illness and measured the changes in titers of anti-Hsp71 antibodies in 9 patients hospitalized by emergency physicians. In the first group of young persons exercising in a hot environment, the occurrence of antibodies against Hsp71 and Hsp90α was significantly higher among individuals with symptoms of heat-induced illness (P < 0.05) than in the matched group of nonaffected exercising individuals. Moreover titers of antibody against Hsp71 were higher in individuals of the severe and mild heat-induced illness groups, the highest titer being found in the most severe cases. The results from the second group of 57 heat-affected patients exposed to extreme heat were similar. Again, patients with the more severe heat-induced symptoms showed a significantly higher incidence of antibodies to Hsp71 than controls and the titer of anti-Hsp71 was higher in the severely affected group. Finally, in a study of 9 patients, it was observed that the titer of anti-Hsp71 decreased during recovery from severe heat symptoms. These results suggest that measurement of antibodies to Hsps may be useful in assessing how individuals are responding to abnormal stress within their living and working environment and may be used as one biomarker to evaluate their susceptibility to heat-induced diseases.