DnaJ homologs are cochaperones of the heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) family. Homologs dj1 (hsp40/hdj-1/DjB1), dj2 (HSDJ/hdj-2/rdj-1/DjA1), and dj3 (cpr3/DNAJ3/HIRIP4/rdj2/DjA2) have been identified in the mammalian cytosol and characterized. In this paper we characterized newly found dj4 (DjA4) and compared it with other chaperones. The dj4 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein were expressed strongly in heart and testis, moderately in brain and ovary, and weakly in other tissues in mice. Dj4 constituted about 1% of the total protein in heart. Testis gave extraspecies of dj4 mRNA and protein in addition to those seen in other tissues. On subcellular fractionation of the mouse heart, dj4 was recovered mostly in the cytosol fraction. In immunocytochemical analysis of the H9c2 heart muscle cells, dj4 and heat shock cognate 70 (hsc70) colocalized in the cytoplasm under normal conditions, whereas they colocalized in the nucleus after heat shock. When H9c2 cells were differentiated by culturing for up to 28 days with a lowered serum concentration, dj4 was increased markedly, dj3 was increased moderately, and dj1 and dj2 were little changed. The homolog dj4 as well as hsp70, dj1, and dj2 were induced in H9c2 cells by heat treatment at 43°C for 30 minutes, whereas hsc70 and dj3 were not induced. Heat pretreatment promoted survival of cells after severe heat shock at 47°C for 90 minutes or 120 minutes. H9c2 cells overexpressing hsp70 were more resistant to severe heat shock, and a better survival was obtained when dj4 or dj2 was co-overexpressed with hsp70. Taking a high concentration of dj4 in heart into consideration, these results suggest that the hsc70/hsp70-dj4 chaperone pair protects the heart muscle cells from various stresses.