Nine proteins have been assigned to date to the superfamily of mammalian small heat shock proteins (sHsps): Hsp27 (HspB1, Hsp25), myotonic dystrophy protein kinase–binding protein (MKBP) (HspB2), HspB3, αA-crystallin (HspB4), αB-crystallin (HspB5), Hsp20 (p20, HspB6), cardiovascular heat shock protein (cvHsp [HspB7]), Hsp22 (HspB8), and HspB9. The most pronounced structural feature of sHsps is the α-crystallin domain, a conserved stretch of approximately 80 amino acid residues in the C-terminal half of the molecule. Using the α-crystallin domain of human Hsp27 as query in a BLAST search, we found sequence similarity with another mammalian protein, the sperm outer dense fiber protein (ODFP). ODFP occurs exclusively in the axoneme of sperm cells. Multiple alignment of human ODFP with the other human sHsps reveals that the primary structure of ODFP fits into the sequence pattern that is typical for this protein superfamily: α-crystallin domain (conserved), N-terminal domain (less conserved), central region (variable), and C-terminal tails (variable). In a phylogenetic analysis of 167 proteins of the sHsp superfamily, using Bayesian inference, mammalian ODFPs form a clade and are nested within previously identified sHsps, some of which have been implicated in cytoskeletal functions. Both the multiple alignment and the phylogeny suggest that ODFP is the 10th member of the superfamily of mammalian sHsps, and we propose to name it HspB10 in analogy with the other sHsps. The C-terminal tail of HspB10 has a remarkable low-complexity structure consisting of 10 repeats of the motif C-X-P. A BLAST search using the C-terminal tail as query revealed similarity with sequence elements in a number of Drosophila male sperm proteins, and mammalian type I keratins and cornifin-α. Taken together, the following findings suggest a specialized role of HspB10 in cytoskeleton: (1) the exclusive location in sperm cell tails, (2) the phylogenetic relationship with sHsps implicated in cytoskeletal functions, and (3) the partial similarity with cytoskeletal proteins.