Cdc37 is a relatively poorly conserved and yet essential molecular chaperone. It has long been thought to function primarily as an accessory factor for Hsp90, notably directing Hsp90 to kinases as substrates. More recent discoveries challenge this simplistic view. Cdc37 client proteins other than kinases have now been found, and Cdc37 displays a variety of Hsp90-independent activities both in vitro and in vivo. It can function as a molecular chaperone by itself, interact with other Hsp90 cochaperones in the absence of Hsp90, and even support yeast growth and protein folding without its Hsp90-binding domain. Thus, for many substrates, there may be many alternative chaperone pathways involving Cdc37, Hsp90, or both.