Transgenic glyphosate-resistant canola was first commercially grown in Western Australia (WA) in 2010, providing an opportunity to obtain important baseline data regarding the level of glyphosate resistance in weeds following the exclusive use of glyphosate for in-crop weed control. In this study, two surveys (2010 and 2011) were conducted across the 14 Mha of the grainbelt of WA. The 2010 survey was carried out at the late-flowering stage of glyphosate-resistant canola, whereas the 2011 survey was conducted at an earlier growth stage (6–8 leaves), ∼2–3 weeks after the second in-crop glyphosate application. During the surveys, 239 fields were visited, representing an estimated combined area of 24 000 ha. The 2011 survey alone represented a subsample of 23% of the total glyphosate-resistant canola planting in the WA grainbelt for that season. Glyphosate resistance was identified in one population of wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.) and in eight annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum L.) populations. None of the tested capeweed (Arctotheca calendula (L.) Levyns) populations were glyphosate-resistant. In this survey, no populations of barley grass (Hordeum spp.), brome grass (Bromus spp.), wild oat (Avena spp.) or small-flowered mallow (Malva parviflora L.) survived glyphosate application. Despite a long history of pre-seeding and fallow glyphosate use in WA, this survey found that glyphosate still provides excellent in-crop control of most species; however, some resistance is evident, requiring diverse weed control techniques to limit their spread.
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Vol. 66 • No. 9