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Despite more than 150 years of diatom research in India, cymbelloid taxa have rarely been investigated when compared to the other parts of the world. A new freshwater species of Encyonema Kützing was discovered from the mountain ranges of Peninsular India and is described based on light and scanning electron microscopy observations. This paper provides a comparison of the new taxa with morphologically similar taxa of the genus Encyonema. Encyonema keshrii, sp. nov., is characterized on the basis of distinctive morphological characters including valve and apex shape as well as striae density. Enccyonema keshrii, sp. nov., is found to be a wide spread taxon with distribution across the Eastern Ghats, Western Ghats and the Eastern Himalayas of Indian subcontinent.