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Plants with Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw. and H. lacunosum (Brid.) Brid. appearance that were collected in direct association with a mixed collection of the two differed only in leaf length and leaf lamina cell length, besides differences in habit and overall size. These leaf characters belong to the few that potentially differentiate these taxa, and they were studied among 97 samples representing four different shoot types found within the morphological span of these taxa. Statistically significant differences were found among the four different plant types and mostly between the two taxa, as defined by overall plant appearance, in leaf lamina cell length (not between taxa), leaf length, and leaf lamina cell length corrected for leaf length. When leaf lamina cell length was corrected for leaf length, this increased the precision of cell length as a distinguishing character. The occurrence of many intermediates between plant types and a great overlap in measurements among plant types and taxa suggests that additional evidence independent from morphology is required to decide about the taxonomic treatment of H. lacunosum in relation to H. cupressiforme. The pseudoparaphyllia were studied in 15 specimens of each taxon, but their appearance showed too much overlap to safely distinguish the two.
Orthotrichum cambrense Bosanquet et F. Lara, is described from material recently collected on trees in a small area of Carmarthenshire, south Wales. The new moss has a unique combination of morphological traits, several of them highly distinctive: characteristic almost flat leaves, with plane margins and frequently rounded apices; brood bodies common on leaves and rhizoids; emergent furrowed capsules with cryptopore stomata in their lower third; a peristome of 8 pairs of teeth and 8 segments; and the calyptra hairy, especially in the upper part. This moss is not believed to be close to other species with plane leaf-margins in the subgenus Pulchella. However, several gametophytic and sporophytic details relate Orthotrichum cambrense to O. tenellum and similar species in this same subgenus. Reasons why such a distinctive moss has gone unnoticed until now are discussed.
Three species of Macromitrium (Bryopsida, Orthotrichaceae), namely M. blumei Nees ex Schwägr., M. cuspidatum Hampe, and M. turgidum Dixon are reported for the first time from China (Hainan and Tibet). Studies of their types and morphological similar species suggest that M. turgidum Dixon var. laeve Dixon is conspecific with M. turgidum Dixon. A key to 27 Chinese species of Macromitrium with their distribution range is presented. For Chinese Macromitrium, east Asiatic element, element endemic to China, and tropical Asian element account for 37.04%, 33.33% and 22.22%, respectively. 62.96% species of Chinese Macromitrium have a tropical distribution pattern. China has a close relationship with Japan and tropical Asia in the flora of Macromitirum.
A compilation of the bryophyte syntaxa known to date from Italy is presented. The 135 associations and 28 subassociations are included in 19 alliances, 42 orders and 12 bryosociological classes. All the syntaxa reported were critically revised from the nomenclatural and syntaxonomical point of view. In the syntaxonomical scheme, for higher phytosociological units (classes, orders and alliances), the ecological features are summarized. The synonyms used in Italy and the characteristic and differential species of each syntaxon are also included. Finally, the distribution of each association and subassociation in the Italian administrative regions is given using the numerical references assigned to the corresponding bibliographic source in References.
Syntrichia sinensis, Ditrichum gracile and Orthotrichum cupulatum var. fuscum are reported from the higher parts of the mountains of Southern — Central Greece, being the first records for the country. Encalypta alpina, Syntrichia papillosissima, and Timmia bavarica, rare in the country, are again recorded in Greece. Ecological and chorological remarks are given for each of the reported species.
Sciuro-hypnum flotowianum (Sendt.) Ignatov & Huttunen (Musci, Brachytheciaceae) has been observed in a forest of Pays de Caux (Seine-Maritime, Upper Normandy, France), far away from its known European distribution area. The difficulties in identification of this pleurocarpous moss are discussed in comparison with S. populeum. Its distribution area in Europe and in some neighbouring countries of France is described; the French area is given more in detail, with a map. The status of this moss is discussed with respect to rarity, Red List status and conservation issues.
A revised list of mosses and their distribution in Malta up till 2011 is presented. Ten species and one variety are new, but six previous records are considered questionable and five have been rejected. Nineteen species have not been found again since 1915. Over 50% of the species listed belong to Pottiaceae, reflecting the prevailing arid climate of the Maltese island. The semi/natural habitats host the greatest diversity and need to be protected.