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An annotated check-list of the bryophytes of the Montseny massif (northeastern Iberian Peninsula) is presented, based on literature and herbarium records revision as well as collections made by the authors. A total of 352 taxa were recorded, out of which three were hornworts, 80 liverworts and 269 mosses. Intensive surveys of original locations of threatened, extinct and protected species in the massif were carried out. Species whose local populations became extinct were those with a strong preference for wet and oligotrophic habitats, such habitats have been severely damaged in recent decades. We discuss possible strategies for effective conservation of those bryophytes whose local population have suffered a decline, like targeted legistation and establishing specific protected areas.
A new species of Metzgeria Raddi, M. mizoramensis sp. nov. is described from Mizoram (Mamit district), India. The species is distinguished by its monoicous sexuality, 2–3 rows of epidermal cells of midrib in ventral view, hairs usually disposed singly along the margin and also scattered on ventral surface of thallus and presence of marginal gemmae.
Pseudephemerum nitidum (Hedw.) Loeske (Ditrichaceae) and Schistidiumconfusum H.H.Blom (Grimmiaceae) were recorded for the first time in Turkey and Southwest Asia. Moreover, the genus Pseudephemerum (Lindb.) I.Hagen was recorded as new for this region, whereas Schistidium confusum was firstly reported from Mediterranean countries. Site descriptions, illustrations and diagnostic characters, ecology, geographic distribution of these species and brief comparisons with morphologically similar taxa were presented.
In this paper we provide new bryophyte reports for Macaronesia as a whole, for single archipelagos, and for single islands. New to Macaronesia are Aneura pseudopinguis, Didymodon brachyphyllus, Diplophyllum obtusifolium, Distichium capillaceum, and Schizymenium pontevedrense. First archipelago reports concern Brachythecium albicans (Canary Islands), Bryum dichotomum (Cape Verde), B. kunzei (Canary Islands), Homalotheciumaureum (Cape Verde), Hydrogonium bolleanum (Madeira), Isopterygiopsis pulchella (Canary Islands), Pohlia cruda (Madeira), Pterygoneurum ovatum (Canary Islands), Schistidiumflaccidum (Madeira), and Tortella fasciculata (Madeira). First single island reports are given for 42 species.
The ephemeral or annual mosses Entosthodon fascicularis (Funariaceae), Microbryum starckeanum (Pottiaceae) and Pohlia melanodon (Mniaceae) were found in the understorey of natural Ziziphus nummularia shrubland in Qatar. These are the first records of bryophytes from the Qatar Peninsula, hence bridging the distribution gap on the Arabian Peninsula. Their site ecology, establishment and habitat maintenance conditions in the desert landscape of Umm Al Shukhoot are discussed.
The history of liverwort studies in Malaysia is briefly reviewed. Three historical periods are recognized: (1) 1838–1938, the first 100 years of liverwort collecting in Malaysia; (2) 1950–2000, during which most collections were made, many new taxa were found and described, and studies were carried out by well-known foreign bryologists e.g., by Zennoske Iwatsuki and Masami Mizutani from the Hattori Botanical Laboratory, Japan; (3) 2000-present day, in which liverwort work has been continued by foreign and local bryologists. Thus far, 747 species and 42 infraspecific taxa of liverworts have been recorded from Malaysia or almost 15% of world diversity of liverworts. However, only few taxonomic treatments and identification keys have been published dealing with Malaysian liverworts. An urgent effort should be undertaken to systematically and intensively collect and study this interesting group of plants in Malaysia.
There exists an increasing pressure on peatland ecosystems in southern South America due to extensive exploitation of Sphagnum and peat. A way to avoid the loss of bryophyte diversity is the establishment of micropropagation protocols. In South America only few studies have assessed the tissue culture of native bryophytes under axenic conditions. The main objective of our work was to assess different conditions to propagate bryophytes, focusing on species from fuegian peatland ecosystems. Four fertile species of mosses (Sphagnum fimbriatum, Conostomum pentastichum, Warnstorfia fluitans, Polytrichastrumlongisetum) and one liverwort (Blepharidophyllum densifolium) in vegetative state were collected in bogs of Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve. Cultures were initiated from protonemata obtained after spore germination and from gametophyte fragments. Explants were exposed to four different culture media. Coverage area of the in vitro explants and the number of regenerated shoots were quantitative variables measured after 12 weeks of culture. Overall, small pieces of protonemata (ca 1 mm2) were a suitable explant for the micropropagation of mosses, whereas liverwort regeneration was successfully achieved from apical portions of stems. Media with low mineral concentration or supplemented with a mixture of IBA/BA produced statistically similar effects on the coverage area of mosses. Low mineral medium systematically induced the regeneration of elongated shoots in mosses and liverworts, and the combination of sucrose and IBA/BA systematically induced the production of calli in mosses and liverwort species. This study provides new insights into the propagation of species from poorly known peatland ecosystems of southern South America.