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The family Diademaceae presently comprises the genera Clathrospora, Comoclathris, Diadema, Diademosa and Graphyllium and is characterized by ascomata opening as a flat circular lid, bitunicate asci and ascospores with three or more transverse septa, with or without longitudinal septa. The ascospores are fusiform, brown, mostly applanate and usually have a mucilaginous sheath. The type species of Clathrospora, Comoclathris and Graphyllium are revisited in this paper and re-described and illustrated with light micrographs based on examination of holotype specimens. The status of the family is discussed based on morphology and sequence data. Comoclathris is excluded from the family based on morphology and phylogenetic analysis, and should be accommodated in Pleosporaceae. Clathrospora is tentatively placed in Pleosporaceae pending molecular studies. Graphyllium has hysterothecial ascomata with a slit-like ostiole and should be excluded from Diademaceae. It can be accommodated in Hysteriaceae, but with uncertainty as species with hysterothecia have now been accommodated in at least five families. Molecular work is needed on Graphyllium to establish its familial placement. The status of Diadema and Diademosa as a distinct family Diademaceae based on ascomata opening as a flat circular lid is thought to be doubtful, but awaits molecular study.
As a result of a study of Russula in East China, Russula zhejiangensis sp. nov., a member of Russula subgen. Tenellula sect. Laricinae, is described. It is characterized by the small-sized basidiomata with bright red, glabrous pileus, yellowish context, cream to ochre spore print, subglobose to ellipsoid basidiospores with isolated obtuse warts, and the pileipellis with septate dermatocystidia. It strongly resembles the Chinese R. minutula var. minor, but the latter has a yellow tinged pileus edge, white spore print, longer, lanceolate cystidia with acute apex and longer cells for the hyphal extremities in the pileipellis.
46 Species of lichenized fungi are reported from Kopet Dagh and Ala Dagh in northern Khorasan and Razavi Khorasan, Iran. Among these Diplotomma pharcidium, Lecanora subrugosa, Rinodina zwackhiana and Seirophora austroarabica are newly recorded for Iran and eight species newly for the respective provinces. A north-eastern element in the Iranian lichen flora is postulated, including Anaptychia roemeri and Seirophora orientalis.
Microscopical characters of type specimens for five species in Russula subgenus Heterophyllidia: R. albiduliformis Murrill, R. flocculosa Burl., R. maculosa Murrill, R. heterosporoides Murrill and R. subgraminicolor Murrill are described in detail. Taxonomy, systematic placement and nomenclatural aspects are discussed. Both R. heterosporoides Murrill and R. subgraminicolor Murrill are likely good species of subsection Virescentinae, whereas the other three species are more difficult to place with precision, but show affinities with both Virescentinae and Heterophyllinae.
The authors investigate the effects of different concentrations of water extract of Armillaria mellea rhizomorphs on mycelial growth of Polyporus umbellatus. This study shows that water extract of A. mellea rhizomorph served as a good carbon and nitrogen source for mycelial growth of P. umbellatus, with 6%o concentration of water extract of A. mellea rhizomorph exhibiting the best growth-promoting results.
A new Dactylella species lacking nematode-trapping devices was isolated from submerged wood during a survey of aquatic fungi in Qilu Lake, Yuxi, Yunnan province, China. Conidiophores are long and repetitive branched, forming 1–3 short conidia in sympodial arrangement at the apex. Conidia are commonly elongated fusoid, rostrate, slightly inflated at the middle, straight or curved, 5–9 septate, tapering evenly towards base, end cell elongate, tapering to a point at the distal, 88.9–143.1(120.8) × 8.2–11.2(9.9) µm, end cell long 22.4–40.2 µm. The new species is introduced, characterized and illustrated in this paper.
The authors describe a Russula in section Cyanoxanthinae with a stipe surface that is entirely covered by a hymenial layer in the form of a reticulate-veined extension of the gills all the way down to the stipe base, a hitherto unknown phenomenon in the family Russulaceae. The significance of this finding is discussed.
The genus Boidinella is erected to accommodate Sistotremella cystidiolophora and Dendrothele globulispora. The genus is characterized by effuse, soft, farinaceous to membranous basidiomata, delicate dendrohyphidia, obclavate leptocystidia, urniform basidia with 4 sterigmata, and subglobose to ellipsoid basidiospores with hyaline, slightly thickened, smooth, cyanophilous walls. Boidinella is compared with Dendrothele, Hypochnicium, Sistotremella, and Leptocorticium.
The Thai freshwater fungi are reviewed. Substrates range from baits (Dipterocarpus alatus, Licuala longicalycata and Xylia dolabriformis) to submerged natural wood, collected in northern (Chiang Mai and Chiang Rai), and southern (Narathiwat) and northeastern (Nakorn Ratchassima) parts of the kingdom. The checklist comprises 173 identified species (including 34 Ingoldian fungi) published up to the end of 2010 and is supported with references. The taxa belong to 112 genera, including 30 Sordariomycetes, 12 Dothideomycetes and 70 anamorphic genera. The most frequently collected genera are the hyphomycetes Biflagellospora, Canalisporium, Dactylaria, Dictyosporium and Xylomyces. Five new genera and 26 new species were first described from Thai freshwater habitats. Fungal diversity in different substrates and Sørensen's index in different sites are discussed.
M. rosatus and M. pseudoquercophilus are proposed as new species. Detailed descriptions and illustrations of their macro- and microscopic characters are provided. The adaptation of M. rosatus and M. pseudoquercophilus to their xeric habitat is a fascinating aspect of both new species.
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