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1 December 2008 Black bear adaptation to low productivity in the boreal forest
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Long snowy winters combined with a short growing season make boreal forests an unproductive environment that challenges black bears (Ursus americanus). We used resource selection functions (based on GPS telemetry of 16 bears), diet analysis, surveys of plant phenology, and vegetation inventories to study adaptations of black bears to boreal forest. Because plants are heavily favoured in bear diets, we expected diet composition to reflect their temporal availability. We anticipated that bears would make choices among land cover types and specific topographic conditions in order to select plants that would fulfil their energetic demands throughout the active period. We also predicted that bears would select habitats modified by insect outbreaks or forest harvesting because these disturbances likely increase resource availability. We found supporting evidence for all of our predictions. (1) Bear diet was closely linked to plant availability. (2) Bears made seasonal altitudinal movements and selected sites according to solar irradiation, tracking the availability of the most digestible plants. Accordingly, bears relied on high-altitude graminoids in spring, a variety of fleshy fruits in summer, and mainly Sorbus americana berries in autumn. (3) Land covers resulting from clearcutting and insect outbreaks increased resource availability for bears and were preferred from summer to autumn. In our study area, black bears are considered predators of a threatened caribou (Rangifer tarandus) population. Even so, we did not find any caribou remains in bear scats. However, our results show that forestry practices, such as clearcutting near the caribou range, could contribute to increased bear presence and thus increase the probability of predation.

Nomenclature: Wilson & Reeder, 1993; Marie-Victorin, 1995.

Arnaud Mosnier, Jean-Pierre Ouellet, and Réhaume Courtois "Black bear adaptation to low productivity in the boreal forest," Ecoscience 15(4), 485-497, (1 December 2008).
Received: 19 June 2007; Accepted: 1 May 2008; Published: 1 December 2008

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