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Gregarious locusts use volatile semiochemicals released from their bodies and feces to regulate their biological characteristics, and many of these compounds are sex-specific. The locust Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) is a frequent plague species in China, but very little is known of its olfactory behavioral ecology. In our previous study, one malespecific compound (2-heptanone) was identified from body volatiles of gregarious adult L. m. manilensis. In the present study, six compounds were identified from fecal volatiles of gregarious adult L. m. manilensis using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer: 3-Methyl-1-butanol, cyclo hexanol, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one and 2,6,6-trimethyl-2-cyclohexene-1,4-dione were present in the fecal volatiles of both sexes, and 2,2,6-trimethylcyclohexanone only in that of females. Olfactometric bioassays indicated that the male-specific 2-heptanone repelled the adult males, but had no effect on females. On the other hand, female-specific 2,2,6-trimethylcyclohexanone was found to repel the adult females, but had no effect on males. The two sex-specific compounds may help to improve reproductive efficiency of the locusts.
Gibbotettix longivalva Zha & Li sp. nov. and Austrohancockia spinafemora Zha & Li sp. nov. from Guizhou Karst Regions, China are described and photographed. Based on typical morpho-characters of the two new species, main differences among Gibbotettix, Austrohancockia and their allied genera are summarized. Austrohancockia is newly recorded for Guizhou Province. A Gibbotettix nymph is recorded.
On human corpses and animal carcasses, predominantly Diptera (flies) and Coleoptera (beetles) are found. Determination of the insect fauna that is forensically relevant in Turkey is required for forensic investigations since such baseline data currently do not exist. The aim of this study is to identify the necrophagous specimens associated with suspicious human deaths in order to determine the fauna of Ankara and its surrounding cities and to estimate the postmortem interval by using the method of accumulated degree days and hours. Insect evidence gathered from 16 sets of human remains across Turkey from 2006 to 2013 was examined. In total, 516 samples were collected. Of that total number, 428 of them were identified as blow flies, 70 were flesh flies, 9 were filth flies, 5 were flies belonging to the Heleomyzidae, one of them was a clown beetle (Histeridae) and 3 were carrion beetles (Silphidae). This is the first comprehensive study associating human corpses with forensic entomology in Turkey.
The two-lined chestnut borer Agrilus bilineatus (Weber, 1801) is recorded for the first time from Europe. Two specimens were collected from Belgrad Forest (European part of Istanbul, Turkey). The new record extends the known distribution.
Koreocephus maculatus Wei & Lee, gen. et sp. nov. is described from South Korea. Koreocephus is similar to Jungicephus Maa but differs from the latter by the inner tooth of the left mandible not shouldered and longer than the outer tooth; the distance between antennal sockets as long as distance between antennal socket and tentorial pit; the maxillary palp with six palpomeres and the 3rd palpomere distinctly enlarged; the labial palp with four palpomeres; malar space shorter than diameter of an ocellus; OOL much shorter than POL; the 2nd antennomere longer than broad; eyes large, the distance between eyes at level of toruli as long as the longest axis of eye; and the basal lobe of the claw obtuse. A key to the eight known genera of Cephidae from Korea is provided.
Haplothrips navvabi sp. n. is described from two Chenopodiaceae plants from southern Iran. The new species is close to the Australian and New Zealand species, H. salicorniae and is the second member of subgenus Haplothrips (Trybomiella) in Iran. Illustrations are provided and H. navvabi is compared with related species in the genus.
Mating behavior of a large Aquarius paludum paludum (Fabricius 1794) (Hemiptera: Gerridae: Gerrini) population was investigated on several field surveys during the mating season. Both types of mating behavior known for semi-aquatic true bugs were observed in the studied population: aggressive Type I mating for non-territorial males and unaggressive Type II mating for the territorial males. Some males establish individual territories at the lake shores that they defend for around one hour and switch to aggressive mating if they fail to attract a female to mate, while most males remain non-territorial. Radial 1–1.5 meter territories were aggressively defended from other males, conflicts being always won by the male already occupying the territory. The presence of Type II males is conditioned by the absence of sufficient space for all males to establish territories. Contact guarding was much longer than documented before for A. paludum paludum, lasting for at least 12–13 hours in some cases. Based on the observations and on the existing information on the group, a more comprehensive classification of mating behavior of true bugs is proposed: Type I - non-territorial, unsignaled grasping, with contact guarding; Type II - territorial, signaled mounting with noncontact guarding; Type III - non-territorial, signaled mounting with contact guarding.
New species from México of the genera Bredinia Flint and Neotrichia Morton (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae) are described and the male genitalia illustrated. The new species described herein are: Bredinia dudosa, Neotrichia harrisi and Neotrichia diabolica and a new record for Rhyacopsyche torulosa Flint, all from Chiapas State, Mexico.
We present the first record of Strebla proximaWenzel, 1976 (Diptera: Streblidae) in Brazil. Our record in Pará state is 2,200 km SE from the nearest record and ends a 41-year hiatus with no records since the original description of the species in Venezuela. The collected specimens (1 male and 1 female) were found parasitizing a female of Peropteryx kappleri Peters, 1867 (Chiroptera: Emballonuridae). Host specificity and the reasons for such a temporal gap between records are discussed.
This study aimed to assess the pollen availability and foraging behavior of visiting bees to identify the effective pollinators of Solanum lycocarpum at a forest fragment. Five flowers of each of two floral morphs were used to determine pollen viability using optical microscopy. Bees were collected during the first 15 minutes of every hour of collection and classified into large, medium and small. Behavioral observations were performed during the remaining 45 minutes. Both floral morphs presented high percentage of viable pollen, without much difference between them. A total of 322 bees from 12 species were collected. Visits were more frequent when the anthers were maintained. Epi charis flava, Centris scopipes and Oxaea flavescens, along with Centris analis had large body size and, due to the behavior presented, were considered effective pollinators of S. lycocarpum. The intense intraspecific and interspecific competition observed among visiting bees may be advantageous for S. lycocarpum reproduction.
Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) is an invasive insect pest native to Southeastern Asia that is now reported to have established populations in North America. We used traps baited with red wine vinegar to detect and monitor D. suzukii in four black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) and maple (Acer spp.) stands in the Allegheny National Forest in northwestern Pennsylvania. Stands ranged in age from 70 to 110 years old, with average basal area from 40 to 45 m2/ha. All stands are characterized as the intermediate Allegheny hardwood forest type with black cherry being the dominant species making up > 70% of the total stand basal area at each site (Eyre, 1980). Traps were placed in the crowns of mature black cherry from May to October 2012. In total, 11,000 D. suzukii were collected. The appearance of D. suzukii on the High Allegheny Plateau in northwestern Pennsylvania could have negative implications for fruit production, dispersal, and seed viability of black cherry and other forest species. With D. suzukii's predilection toward Prunus spp. and its unusual method of oviposition, this could be a contributing factor that impacts black cherry regeneration on the Plateau.