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1 February 2000 Patterns of Host Plant Growth and Attack and Establishment of Gall-Inducing Wasp (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae)
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We examined the effect of shoot size distribution within plants and different stage of host plant development on the pattern of attack of Andricus sp. on gambel oak, Quercus gambelli Nuttall. The gall-inducing wasp preferred large diameter shoots to small ones in 2 populations of host plant. Attack on larger shoots was significantly nonrandom and occurred even though these shoots were relatively scarce in the shoot population. Large shoots accounted for only 5.51 and 12.72% of the total shoots in an urban and forest site, respectively. The percentage of attack on shoots in the largest shoot diameter class was 10.53 and 48.74% in the urban and forest site, respectively. Gall density decreased with maturity of the host plant and was 3 times higher on juvenile plants compared with mature plants. The distribution of attack in relation to plant age was not related to changes in shoot size with the age of the plants. Gambel oak may become resistant to gall formation with increasing age. Survival was 33.72% higher on large shoots (83.72%) compared with small shoots (50.00%). Larval survival did not change with plant age among host plants. The pattern of attack in relation to shoot size suggests that Andricus sp. prefer to oviposit on large shoots in which larval performance was highest. Andricus sp. might show a flexible oviposition preference hierarchy for shoot lengths. Females attacked the longest shoots available rather than showing a fixed preference for specific shoot lengths.

Carmen S. S. Pires and Peter W. Price "Patterns of Host Plant Growth and Attack and Establishment of Gall-Inducing Wasp (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae)," Environmental Entomology 29(1), 49-54, (1 February 2000).
Received: 24 November 1998; Accepted: 1 August 1999; Published: 1 February 2000

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