We examined the relative importance of vision and antennal olfaction in enemy avoidance by three heteropterans. Jumping spiders (Phidippus spp.) served as enemies of Nabicula subcoleoptrata (Kirby) and Nabis americoferus Carayon, and praying mantids (Tenodera aridifolia sinensis Saussure) were used as enemies of Sinea diadema (F.). In a greenhouse study, the number of bugs surviving enclosure with spiders or mantids was compared among individuals without vision, without antennal olfaction and controls after 0.5, 1, 4, and 24 h. For Nabicula subcoleoptrata and S. diadema, vision appeared to be of primary importance in avoiding capture by enemies. In contrast, most Nabis americoferus were killed by spiders and no significant difference in survival existed among the treatment groups. The importance of vision in predator avoidance is in contrast with a recently documented reliance on antennal olfaction for prey location in these species. Thus, stimuli from prey and predators may be segregated to maximize the efficiency of sensory information processing.
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