Laboratory studies on the temperature-dependent development of Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefebvre) were performed under five constant temperatures ranging from 20 to 30°C as well as under the corresponding alternating temperatures of 25:10, 27.5:12.5, 30:15, 32.5:17.5, and 35:20°C, at a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h. Both linear and nonlinear (Lactin formula) models provided a reliable fit of developmental rates versus temperature for all immature stages either at constant or alternating temperatures. Developmental thresholds that were estimated by a linear model for eggs, larvae, or pupae were approximately the same and estimated to be 10.57, 8.89, and 10.75°C, respectively, at constant temperatures. Lower values were estimated when immature stages were exposed to the corresponding alternating temperatures (7.23, 6.20, and 6.50°C for eggs, larvae, and pupae). Therefore, the evaluation of the development of immature stages under constant temperatures resulted in an overestimation of the lower thresholds. The Lactin-2 model also was applied, and larval and egg developmental thresholds did not differ from those that were estimated by the linear model. Differences, however, occurred at the pupal stage. Nevertheless, the differences in the estimated values of the lower developmental thresholds of the immature stages under constant or alternating temperatures indicate that a model predicting phenology in the field should be based on fluctuating temperature.
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