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1 April 2005 Physiological Constraints on the Overwintering Potential of the Soybean Aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae)
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The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, has a heteroecious, holocyclic life cycle. Soybean aphids overwinter as eggs, hatch in the spring, reproduce asexually, and undergo three or more generations on buckthorn, Rhamnus spp., before migrating to a secondary host such as soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr. The ability of different soybean aphid life stages to survive low temperatures potentially experienced during fall or winter is not known. The objectives of this study were to determine the supercooling point (SCP) of various soybean aphid life stages and to determine the annual probability that winter temperatures within the North Central region of the United States would equal or fall below the mean SCP of soybean aphid eggs. Aphid eggs are considered the most cold-hardy stage; therefore, their SCP can be used as a conservative estimate for aphid overwintering mortality. In our study, eggs had the lowest mean SCP (approximately −34°C) among all life stages, whereas gynoparae and oviparae had the highest mean SCPs (approximately −15°C). During the winter, extreme low air temperatures are likely to reach or exceed the mean SCP of soybean aphid eggs in portions of northern Minnesota, northern Wisconsin, and the upper peninsula of Michigan. Thus, widespread successful overwintering in the northern United States and southern Canada is less likely than in Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Iowa, southern Minnesota, southern Wisconsin, and the lower peninsula of Michigan.

B. P. McCornack, M. A. Carrillo, R. C. Venette, and D. W. Ragsdale "Physiological Constraints on the Overwintering Potential of the Soybean Aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae)," Environmental Entomology 34(2), 235-240, (1 April 2005).
Received: 2 August 2004; Accepted: 1 November 2004; Published: 1 April 2005

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