The membracid Aconophora compressa Walker, a biological control agent released in 1995 to control Lantana camara (Verbenaceae) in Australia, has since been collected on several nontarget plant species. Our survey suggests that sustained populations of A. compressa are found only on the introduced nontarget ornamental Citharexylum spinosum (Verbenaceae) and the target weed L. camara. It is found on other nontarget plant species only when populations on C. spinosum and L. camara are high, suggesting that the presence of populations on nontarget species may be a spill-over effect. Some of the incidence and abundance on nontarget plants could have been anticipated from host specificity studies done on this agent before release, whereas others could not. This raises important issues about predicting risks posed by weed biological control agents and the need for long-term postintroduction monitoring on nontarget species.
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