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1 April 2008 Primary and Secondary Parasitoids (Hymenoptera) of Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on Blueberry and Other Vaccinium in the Pacific Northwest
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Abstract

Blueberry scorch virus, a commercially important Carlavirus in highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L., is vectored by aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae). We surveyed the aphids, primary parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae, Braconidae), and associated secondary parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Charipidae, Megaspilidae, Pteromalidae) on highbush blueberry and other Vaccinium in the Pacific Northwest from 1995 to 2006, with samples concentrated in 2005 and 2006, to lay the groundwork for augmentative biological control. Ericaphis fimbriata (Richards) was the principal aphid. The dominant parasitoid species were Praon unicum Smith, Aphidius n. sp., A. sp., and Aphidius ervi Haliday. Their frequency in relation to the other primary parasitoids varied significantly with geographical area; P. unicum dominated the frequency distribution in southwestern British Columbia, A. n. sp., west of the Cascades, and A. sp. and A. ervi east of the Cascades. Among the secondary parasitoids, pteromalids dominated, and their frequency in relation to the other secondary parasitoids was lowest in southwestern British Columbia. The parasitization rate for P. unicum and A. n. sp. in southwestern British Columbia increased from May or June to a maximum of 0.080 ± 0.024 and 0.090 ± 0.084 (SD), respectively, in late July or early August. P. unicum emerged in the spring 4 wk before A. n. sp. The parasitization rate for P. unicum was lower in conventional than organic fields. Whereas aphid density increased monotonically, P. unicum had two spring peaks. A simulation model showed that these peaks could reflect discrete generations. Releases of insectary-reared P. unicum at 150 or 450 DD above 5.6 °C, summing from 1 January, may effectively augment the natural spring populations by creating overlapping generations.

D. A. Raworth, K. S. Pike, L. K. Tanigoshi, S. Mathur, and G. Graf "Primary and Secondary Parasitoids (Hymenoptera) of Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on Blueberry and Other Vaccinium in the Pacific Northwest," Environmental Entomology 37(2), 472-477, (1 April 2008). https://doi.org/10.1603/0046-225X(2008)37[472:PASPHO]2.0.CO;2
Received: 31 May 2007; Accepted: 15 January 2008; Published: 1 April 2008
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