Insects in the order Thysanoptera are known for their haplodiploid reproduction, with most species reproducing by arrhenotoky. A few species, however, have only female populations and reproduce by thelytoky. Seven thrips species reproducing either by arrhenotoky [Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), Echinothrips americanus Morgan, Suocerathrips linguis Mound and Marullo, Gynaikothrips ficorum (Marchal)] or thelytoky [Hercinothrips femoralis (O.M. Reuter) and Parthenothrips dracaenae (Heeger)] or showing both reproduction modes (Thrips tabaci Lindeman) were screened for the presence of Wolbachia using 16S rDNA and ftsZ gene primers. The arrhenotokous reproducing species E. americanus, G. ficorum, and S. linguis tested positive for Wolbachia. The bacterium was not detected in F. occidentalis or T. tabaci; even the thelytokous population of T. tabaci was free of Wolbachia. Wolbachia was found in the thelytokous reproducing species H. femoralis and P. dracaenae. Antibiotic treatment of H. femoralis induced the production of males that copulated with females. The results confirmed Wolbachia to be present in thelytokous reproducing thrips species and proved the presence of the bacterium for the first time in some arrhenotokous reproducing thrips species.
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