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1 August 2010 Protracted Emergence of Overwintering Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) from Pistachios and Almonds in California
L.P.S. Kuenen, J. P. Siegel
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Abstract

The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker), is the primary insect pest of pistachios and almonds in California. Four years of research (2002–2006) were conducted in Madera and Kern Counties to elucidate the pattern of adult emergence of the overwintering navel orangeworm population. Springtime emergence from unharvested (mummy) nuts was protracted (600 degree-days or more from 1 January of each year) and in 2004 and 2006 extended to mid-July. The population structure, sex ratio, and timing of emergence differed between pistachio and almond mummies, Pistachio populations had a significantly greater proportion of late stage individuals compared with almond mummies, 85.7 versus 34.1%. The sex ratio of adults emerging from pistachio mummies was significantly skewed with a ratio 57:43 male:female compared with 50:50 in almond mummies. Emergence from mummies held outdoors (variable temperature) began in early March and continued through early June in both pistachio mummies and almond mummies. The adult emergence pattern from pistachio mummies contained a single emergence peak, whereas emergence from almond mummies occurred in multiple peaks. These same patterns occurred when mummies were held at constant temperature, and the emergence peak from pistachio mummies occurred sooner. The impact of these findings on understanding navel orangeworm population dynamics and current control recommendations is discussed.

L.P.S. Kuenen and J. P. Siegel "Protracted Emergence of Overwintering Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) from Pistachios and Almonds in California," Environmental Entomology 39(4), 1059-1067, (1 August 2010). https://doi.org/10.1603/EN09277
Received: 29 September 2009; Accepted: 2 March 2010; Published: 1 August 2010
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KEYWORDS
almonds
navel orangeworm
overwintering emergence
pistachios
sex ratio
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