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1 April 2011 Response of Psyttalia humilis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) to Olive Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Conditions in California Olive Orchards
Victoria Y. Yokoyama, Pedro A. Rendón, Xin-Geng Wang, Susan B. Opp, Marshall W. Johnson, Kent M. Daane
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Abstract

The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia humilis (Silvestri), reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Weidemann), by USD A-APHIS-PPQ, San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi). This study reports the results of field releases and recovery of P. humilis in California, and laboratory investigations to determine the effects of food provision, high temperature, and insecticidal bait spray on the parasitoid's survival and fecundity. Parasitoids (3,613–7,823) were released in Orland, San Juan Bautista, Cayucos, Sylmar, Santa Barbara, and San Diego during October through December 2006. Mean daily temperatures at the release sites ranged from 10.7°C in Orland to 20.9°C in San Juan Bautista. The lowest (0.5) and highest (29.7) mean number of adult B. oleae per day per trap was captured in Orland and Sylmar, while the lowest (0.01) and highest (2.21) number of third instar larvae per fruit was collected on 11 December in Orland and on 5 October in San Diego in prerelease samples, respectively. Parasitoids were recovered from all release sites, the lowest (0.3%) and highest (100%) parasitism occurred on 25 January in Sylmar and on 26 October in Cayucos, respectively. At 24°C, parasitoids reared from B. oleae larvae survived 36 d on honey, 31 d on orange juice, and 28 d on honeydew, which was significantly longer than on cut olive fruit (8 d) or without food (11 d), but was similar to those reared from C. capitata larvae under the same food conditions. Under a high diurnal temperature regime (18.3–35°C) reflecting the summer olive growing conditions in the California Central Valley, the parasitoids survived <5 d when no food or only water was provided. Its longevity and life-time fecundity significantly increased by provision of honey or honeydew. There was no difference in the parasitoid's longevity between females and males or between food and sexes. Percent mortality of parasitoid adults was not significantly affected by the exposure to insecticidal fruit fly bait (GF-120) in four different types of choice tests with artificial honeydew and GF-120.

© 2011 Entomological Society of America
Victoria Y. Yokoyama, Pedro A. Rendón, Xin-Geng Wang, Susan B. Opp, Marshall W. Johnson, and Kent M. Daane "Response of Psyttalia humilis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) to Olive Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Conditions in California Olive Orchards," Environmental Entomology 40(2), 315-323, (1 April 2011). https://doi.org/10.1603/EN10186
Received: 23 July 2010; Accepted: 1 December 2010; Published: 1 April 2011
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