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1 June 2011 Direct Sampling of Resting Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Adults in Apple Tree Canopies and Surrounding Habitats
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Field investigations were conducted to determine the resting locations of codling moth (Cydia pomonella [L.]) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) males and females in mating disrupted and nondisrupted apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchard plots. A custom-made sampling device, consisting of a leaf blower converted into a powerful vacuum, yielded 20–24% success in recovering marked moths, released in the tree canopy in orchards. Four collections each were made between 0900 and 1800 hours and 1800 and 2200 hours in 2005. Ninety-four moths were collected during the 1800–2200 hours samples. In mating disruption plots, 42% of females and 22% of males were found in the top third of the tree canopy (3.0–4.5m), 46% females and 43% males in the middle third (1.5–3.0m), and 12% female and 35% male in the lower third (0–1.5m). In nondisrupted plots 36.4% of females and 40% of males were in the top third of the canopy, 36.4% females and 52% males in the middle third, and 27.2% females and 8% males in the lower third of the tree canopy. Daylight vacuum sampling recovered only one female and two male moths from the top, four males from the middle and one male from the lower third of the tree canopy. Release-recapture studies of marked adult codling moths were conducted in 2006–2007 in screened tents to determine within orchard habitats for adult moths during 0900–1800 hours. Of moths recaptured, 14.6% of females and 13.5% of males were from the ground (herbicide strip and drive-row grass) and 32.9% of females and 24.6% of males were captured in the tree canopy 16-h post release, 17.4% of females and 3.4% of males from the ground and 26.5% of females and 38.2% of males in the tree 40-h post release, and 15.1% of females and 18.6% of males from the ground and 15.7 of females and 25.5% of males in the tree 64-h post release. Application of pyrethrum PBO by using an orchard blast sprayer in 2007 resulted in the recapture of 28% and 37% of laboratory reared male and female moths, respectively, from trees during 0900–1800 h. Our results suggest that distributing pheromone dispensers throughout the tree canopy may be more effective than placing them in one location, such as near the tree crown.

© 2011 Entomological Society of America
David L. Epstein, James R. Miller, Matthew J. Grieshop, Lukasz L. Stelinski, and Larry J. Gut "Direct Sampling of Resting Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Adults in Apple Tree Canopies and Surrounding Habitats," Environmental Entomology 40(3), 661-668, (1 June 2011).
Received: 6 October 2010; Accepted: 1 February 2011; Published: 1 June 2011

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