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1 February 2015 Behavior of Tamarixia triozae Females (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) Attacking Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) and Effects of Three Pesticides on this Parasitoid
Ana-Mabel Martinez, Juan-Manuel Chavarrieta, Sinue-Isabel Morales, Kiela-Briseida Caudillo, José-Isaac Figueroa, Ovidio Diaz, Rafael Bujanos, Benjamín Gomez, Elisa Viñuela, Samuel Pineda
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Abstract

The parasitism and host feeding behavior of Tamarixia triozae (Burks) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) females on Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) fourth instars that have infested tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller) leaflets are described and quantified. Females took approximately 31.14±4.39 min to search for their first suitable host. The recognition and handling times for oviposition were 2.66±0.18 and 4.26±0.39 min, respectively. T. triozae parasitized 4.66±0.61 nymphs in a period of 6 h. The parasitoid explored and probed its host by walking along the margins of its body while antennating and repeatedly introducing the ovipositor beneath the nymph. The handling times before and during host feeding were 8.42±0.67 and 8.29±0.60 min, respectively. T. triozae females consumed 1.00±0.00 B. cockerelli nymph after parasitizing 3.3±0.48 nymphs. EPA—a refined soybean oil—imidacloprid, and abamectin caused between ∼70 and 100% T. triozae adult mortality after a 48-h contact treatment with fresh pesticide residue and a 47–91% decrease (abamectin > imidacloprid > EPA) in adult emergence when parasitized B. cockerelli fourth instars were directly sprayed. These data suggest that the use of these insecticides in combination with T. triozae in integrated pest management programs should be carefully evaluated.

© The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com
Ana-Mabel Martinez, Juan-Manuel Chavarrieta, Sinue-Isabel Morales, Kiela-Briseida Caudillo, José-Isaac Figueroa, Ovidio Diaz, Rafael Bujanos, Benjamín Gomez, Elisa Viñuela, and Samuel Pineda "Behavior of Tamarixia triozae Females (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) Attacking Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) and Effects of Three Pesticides on this Parasitoid," Environmental Entomology 44(1), 3-11, (1 February 2015). https://doi.org/10.1093/ee/nvu015
Received: 6 September 2014; Accepted: 10 November 2014; Published: 1 February 2015
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KEYWORDS
abamectin
EPA insecticide
host feeding
imidacloprid
parasitism
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