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1 April 2015 Improving the Performance of the Granulosis Virus of Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) by Adding the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with Sugar
Alan L. Knight, Esteban Basoalto, Peter Witzgall
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Abstract

Studies were conducted with the codling moth granulosis virus (CpGV) to evaluate whether adding the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Meyen ex E. C. Hansen with brown cane sugar could improve larval control of Cydia pomonella (L.). Larval mortalities in dipped-apple bioassays with S. cerevisiae or sugar alone were not significantly different from the water control. The addition of S. cerevisiae but not sugar with CpGV significantly increased larval mortality compared with CpGValone. The combination of S. cerevisiae and sugar with CpGV significantly increased larval mortality compared with CpGV plus either additive alone. The addition of S. cerevisiae improved the efficacy of CpGV similarly to the use of the yeast Metschnikowia pulcherrima (isolated from field-collected larvae). The proportion of uninjured fruit in field trials was significantly increased with the addition of S. cerevisiae and sugar to CpGV compared with CpGValone only in year 1, and from the controls in both years. In comparison, larval mortality was significantly increased in both years with the addition of S. cerevisiae and sugar with CpGV compared with CpGV alone or from the controls. The numbers of overwintering larvae on trees was significantly reduced from the control following a seasonal program of CpGV plus S. cerevisiae and sugar. The addition of a microencapsulated formulation of pear ester did not improve the performance of CpGVor CpGV plus S. cerevisiae and sugar. These data suggest that yeasts can enhance the effectiveness of the biological control agent CpGV, in managing and maintaining codling moth at low densities.

Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.
Alan L. Knight, Esteban Basoalto, and Peter Witzgall "Improving the Performance of the Granulosis Virus of Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) by Adding the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with Sugar," Environmental Entomology 44(2), 252-259, (1 April 2015). https://doi.org/10.1093/ee/nvv008
Received: 3 November 2014; Accepted: 11 January 2015; Published: 1 April 2015
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