6 October 2021 Tolerances of Apple Maggot (Diptera: Tephritidae) Larvae and Different Age Puparia to Water Flotation and Immersion
Wee L. Yee
Author Affiliations +

Tolerance of terrestrial insects in temperate regions to water immersion and hypoxia has rarely been studied but can be an important adaptation to moist environments, with implications for insect dispersal through waterways. In the Pacific Northwest of the United States, apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera:Tephritidae), can be found in riparian habitats subject to flooding. Here, survival of R. pomonella larvae and different age puparia after flotation or immersion in 13.3°C or 21.1°C water for 1–12 d was determined. Larvae sank in water and when submerged for 1 or 2 d suffered greater mortality than control larvae. Fewer young (1–2 d old) than older puparia (13–15 d old) floated in water. When immersed in water for 1–12 d, young puparia suffered greater mortality than older puparia, which were not affected by water immersion. Consequently, fewer adult flies eclosed from puparia that had been water treated when young than older. Adult flies from pre-chill and post-chill puparia that had been water treated eclosed later than control flies, but treatment flies survived about 60 d and reproduced. Although newly-formed puparia are susceptible to hypoxic water conditions, increased buoyancy and water tolerance occur rapidly after formation, perhaps making survival possible and allowing water-borne dispersal of older puparia.

Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2021. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Wee L. Yee "Tolerances of Apple Maggot (Diptera: Tephritidae) Larvae and Different Age Puparia to Water Flotation and Immersion," Environmental Entomology 50(6), 1407-1415, (6 October 2021). https://doi.org/10.1093/ee/nvab102
Received: 27 April 2021; Accepted: 20 August 2021; Published: 6 October 2021

This article is only available to subscribers.
It is not available for individual sale.

adult eclosion
Rhagoletis pomonella
Get copyright permission
Back to Top