Seasonal temperatures select for eclosion timing of temperate insects and their parasitoids. In western North America, the fruit fly Rhagoletis zephyria Snow (Diptera: Tephritidae) is parasitized by the hymenopterous wasps Utetes lectoides (Gahan), an egg parasite, and Opius downesi Gahan, a larval parasite (both Braconidae). Eclosion of wasps should be timed with the presence of susceptible fly stages, but reports indicate U. lectoides ecloses in the absence of flies under no-chill conditions. Based on this, we tested the hypotheses that chill durations and no-chill temperatures both differentially regulate eclosion times of R. zephyria and its parasitic wasps. When fly puparia were chilled at ∼3°C for 130–180 d, U. lectoides and O. downesi always eclosed on average later than flies. However, after 180-d chill, flies eclosed on average earlier than after 130- and 150-d chill, whereas eclosion times of U. lectoides and O. downesi were less or not affected by chill duration. When fly puparia were exposed to 20–22°C (no chill), U. lectoides eclosed before flies, with 88.9% of U. lectoides versus only 0.61% of flies eclosing. Taken together, findings show that eclosion times of flies are more sensitive to changes in chill duration than those of wasps. Flies are less sensitive than wasps to no-chill in that most flies do not respond by eclosing after no-chill while most wasps do. Our results suggest that shorter winters and longer summers due to climate change could cause mismatches in eclosion times of flies and wasps, with potentially significant evolutionary consequences.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.
Vol. 51 • No. 2