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8 February 2022 Sensitivities to Chill Durations and No-Chill Temperatures Regulating Eclosion Responses Differ Between Rhagoletis zephyria (Diptera: Tephritidae) and its Braconid Parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)
Wee L. Yee, Robert B. Goughnour, Andrew A. Forbes, Joshua M. Milnes, Jeffrey L. Feder
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Abstract

Seasonal temperatures select for eclosion timing of temperate insects and their parasitoids. In western North America, the fruit fly Rhagoletis zephyria Snow (Diptera: Tephritidae) is parasitized by the hymenopterous wasps Utetes lectoides (Gahan), an egg parasite, and Opius downesi Gahan, a larval parasite (both Braconidae). Eclosion of wasps should be timed with the presence of susceptible fly stages, but reports indicate U. lectoides ecloses in the absence of flies under no-chill conditions. Based on this, we tested the hypotheses that chill durations and no-chill temperatures both differentially regulate eclosion times of R. zephyria and its parasitic wasps. When fly puparia were chilled at ∼3°C for 130–180 d, U. lectoides and O. downesi always eclosed on average later than flies. However, after 180-d chill, flies eclosed on average earlier than after 130- and 150-d chill, whereas eclosion times of U. lectoides and O. downesi were less or not affected by chill duration. When fly puparia were exposed to 20–22°C (no chill), U. lectoides eclosed before flies, with 88.9% of U. lectoides versus only 0.61% of flies eclosing. Taken together, findings show that eclosion times of flies are more sensitive to changes in chill duration than those of wasps. Flies are less sensitive than wasps to no-chill in that most flies do not respond by eclosing after no-chill while most wasps do. Our results suggest that shorter winters and longer summers due to climate change could cause mismatches in eclosion times of flies and wasps, with potentially significant evolutionary consequences.

Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2022. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Wee L. Yee, Robert B. Goughnour, Andrew A. Forbes, Joshua M. Milnes, and Jeffrey L. Feder "Sensitivities to Chill Durations and No-Chill Temperatures Regulating Eclosion Responses Differ Between Rhagoletis zephyria (Diptera: Tephritidae) and its Braconid Parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)," Environmental Entomology 51(2), 440-450, (8 February 2022). https://doi.org/10.1093/ee/nvac009
Received: 6 December 2021; Accepted: 15 January 2022; Published: 8 February 2022
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KEYWORDS
diapause
fruit fly
global warming
snowberry
Utetes
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