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Our collecting of lichens in Lawrence County, Pennsylvania has increased the known diversity to nearly 50 taxa. Before this study, the most recent published reports on lichens for the county were recorded nearly 60 years ago; hence, many of these records were historic. These aforementioned studies combined with the CNALH database have identified more than 30 taxa that have occurred in Lawrence County which totals 24 lichen species reported for the county. In this study, a collection of nearly 50 lichens were acquired in 2016 and 2017 from Lawrence County. Seventeen lichen species are reported as new to the county. This study demonstrates that lichen diversity in Lawrence County is underestimated.
We inventoried bryophytes in Kentucky's Red River Gorge region (RRG) during the 4-day 2016 Crum Moss Workshop and compared our findings with those of Studlar and Snider (1989), which were based primarily on collections by Studlar 40 years earlier. We collected 185 bryophyte species (140 mosses and 45 liverworts), mainly around Corbin sandstone cliffs, arches, and rockhouses (overhangs). About 61% of the 260 taxa (176 mosses and 84 hepatics, using updated nomenclature) reported in 1989 were found again. We added to the RRG flora 20 species (15 mosses and 5 liverworts), including the disjunct Heterocladiummacounii and 5 state records: 2 mosses (Serpoleskea minutissima and Cryphaea nervosa) and 3 liverworts (Microlejeunea globosa, Frullania virginica, and Cheilolejeunea conchifolia). Four species characteristic of rockhouses in sandstone gorges were recollected: Bryoxiphiumnorvegicum, Hookeria acutifolia, Diphyscium mucronifolium (formerly D. cumberlandianum), and Syrrhopodon texanus. The globally rare “copper moss”, Scopelophila cataractae was found again and with a sporophyte, a first report for North America. A total (including literature reports) of 289 bryophyte species (200 moss and 89 liverworts) are now known from the RRG.
Buellia dives and Lichenodiplis anomala are reported new to North America. Caeruleoconidiaochrolechiae is reported new to North America north of Mexico. Cercidospora stereocaulorum and Verrucaria aquatilis are reported new to the contiguous 48 states of the USA. Phaeocalicium betulinum is reported new to the western USA and Arthoniasubfuscicola as new to northwestern North America. Five other species of lichens and lichenicolous fungi are reported new to the USA portion of the Rocky Mountains. Additional specimen details are provided for six other species with few reports from the region.
The global increase in air pollution has a number of consequences including damage to our environment and health. Bioindicators are living organisms which reveal certain qualities of our environment with their absence or presence. This is useful in identifying polluted areas in order to manage pollution levels. Parmelia sulcata is said to be a pollution-tolerant lichen and consequently a bioindicator. We wished to test P. sulcata's ability as a bioindicator, indicating poor air quality with its presence. We used randomized quadrat sampling of 80 trees over four municipalities on the Avalon Peninsula of Newfoundland, Canada with increasing human populations as a proxy for pollution. Results suggest that P. sulcata is not an ideal bioindicator of high pollution. It was absent or diseased in areas of highest pollution and present in areas of low-medium pollution levels. We recommend further studies evaluate P. sulcata's potential as a bioindicator of low-medium air pollution.