The evolution of premating isolation after secondary contact is primarily considered in the guise of reinforcement, which relies on low hybrid fitness as the driving force for mating preference divergence. Here I consider two additional forces that may play a substantial role in the adaptive evolution of premating isolation, direct selection on preferences and indirect selection against postmating, prezygotic incompatibilities. First, I argue that a combination of ecological character displacement and sensory bias can cause direct selection on preferences that results in the pattern of reproductive character displacement. Both analytical and numerical methods are then used to demonstrate that, as expected from work in single populations, such direct selection will easily overwhelm indirect selection due to low hybrid fitness as the primary determinant of preference evolution. Second, postmating, prezygotic incompatibilities are presented as a driving force in the evolution of premating isolation. Two classes of these mechanisms, those increasing female mortality after mating but before producing offspring and those reducing female fertility, are shown to be identical in their effects on preference divergence. Analytical and numerical techniques are then used to demonstrate that postmating, prezygotic factors may place strong selection on preference divergence. These selective forces are shown to be comparable if not greater than those produced by the low fitness of hybrids.
Corresponding Editor: M. Whitlock