The evolution of antibiotic resistance provides a well-documented, rapid, and recent example of a selection driven process that has occurred in many bacterial species. An exhaustive collection of Moraxella catarrhalis that spans a transition to chromosomally encoded penicillin resistance was used to analyze genetic changes accompanying the transition. The population was characterized by high haplotypic diversity with 148 distinct haplotypes among 372 isolates tested at three genomic regions. The power of a temporally stratified sample from a single population was highlighted by the finding of high genetic diversity throughout the transition to resistance, population numbers that remained high over time, and no evidence of departures from neutrality in the allele frequency spectra throughout the transition. The direct temporal analysis documented the persistence, antibiotic status, and haplotypic identity of strains undergoing apparent clonal expansions. Several haplotypes that were β-lactamase nonproducers in early samples converted to producers in later years. Maintenance of genetic diversity and haplotype conversions from sensitive to resistant supported the hypothesis that penicillin resistance determinants spread to a diverse array of strains via horizontal exchange. Genetic differentiation between sample years, estimated by FST, was increasing at a rate that could cause complete haplotype turnover in less than 150 years. Widespread linkage disequilibrium among sites within one locus (copB) suggested recent mutation followed by clonal expansion. Nonrandom associations between haplotypes and resistance phenotypes provided further evidence of clonal expansion for some haplotypes. Nevertheless, the population structure was far from clonal as evidenced by a relatively low frequency of disequilibria both within sites at a second locus (M46) as well as between loci. The haplotype-antibiotic resistance association that was accompanied by gradual haplotype turnover is consistent with a hypothesis of genetic drift at marker loci with directional selection at the resistance locus.
Corresponding Editor: D. Roff