I address how floral complexity influences geitonogamous self-pollination through manipulation of pollinator behavior in Salvia nipponica. The pivoting stamens of S. nipponica hinder nectar-collecting bumblebees from crawling into flowers, increasing the probing time per flower. I predicted that longer probing times would reduce the relative cost of moving between plants, causing bees to leave plants earlier. To test this prediction, I simplified S. nipponica flowers by removing the stamens from all open flowers within a 75-m2 quadrat. Bumblebees probed these flowers more quickly than intact flowers, but the stamen removal affected neither the frequency of flower revisitation nor the flight distance between plants. In response to the decrease in the probing time per flower, bees probed more flowers on these plants. Therefore, in S. nipponica, floral complexity reduces the opportunity for geitonogamous self-pollination. Stamen removal also increased bee visitation per flower, suggesting that this sort of complexity deters visitation. To keep complex flowers attractive, therefore, selection might increase floral rewards or longevity. Floral complexity might evolve in an integrative manner with the rest of the floral phenotype.
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Vol. 56 • No. 12