Relationships among the various diploid and polyploid taxa that comprise Glycine tomentella have been hypothesized from crossing studies, isozyme data, and repeat length variation for the 5S nuclear ribosomal gene loci. However, several key questions have persisted, and detailed phylogenetic evidence from homoeologous nuclear genes has been lacking. The histone H3-D locus is single copy in diploid Glycine species and has been used to elucidate relationships among diploid races of G. tomentella, providing a framework for testing genome origins in the polyploid complex. For all six G. tomentella polyploid races (T1–T6), alleles at two homoeologous histone H3-D loci were isolated and analyzed phylogenetically with alleles from diploid Glycine species, permitting the identification of all of the homoeologous genomes of the complex. Allele networks were constructed to subdivide groups of homoeologous alleles further, and two-locus genotypes were constructed using these allele classes. Results suggest that some races have more than one origin and that interfertility within races has led to lineage recombination. Most alleles in polyploids are identical or closely related to alleles in diploids, suggesting recency of polyploid origins and spread beyond Australia. These features parallel the other component of the Glycine subgenus Glycine polyploid complex, G. tabacina, one of whose races shares a diploid genome with a G. tomentella polyploid race.
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Vol. 56 • No. 7