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1 August 2004 ALTRUISM VIA KIN-SELECTION STRATEGIES THAT RELY ON ARBITRARY TAGS WITH WHICH THEY COEVOLVE
Robert Axelrod, Ross A. Hammond, Alan Grafen
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Abstract

Hamilton's rule explains when natural selection will favor altruism between conspecifics, given their degree of relatedness. In practice, indicators of relatedness (such as scent) coevolve with strategies based on these indicators, a fact not included in previous theories of kin recognition. Using a combination of simulation modeling and mathematical extension of Hamilton's rule, we demonstrate how altruism can emerge and be sustained in a coevolutionary setting where relatedness depends on an individual's social environment and varies from one locus to another. The results support a very general expectation of widespread, and not necessarily weak, conditional altruism in nature.

Robert Axelrod, Ross A. Hammond, and Alan Grafen "ALTRUISM VIA KIN-SELECTION STRATEGIES THAT RELY ON ARBITRARY TAGS WITH WHICH THEY COEVOLVE," Evolution 58(8), 1833-1838, (1 August 2004). https://doi.org/10.1554/04-013
Received: 9 January 2004; Accepted: 4 May 2004; Published: 1 August 2004
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KEYWORDS
Armpit effect
Hamilton's rule
inclusive fitness
Price equation
self-recognition
viscous population
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