In recent decades, the field of historical biogeography has become increasingly divorced from evolutionary biology, ecology, and studies of species richness. In this paper, we explore the evolutionary causes of patterns of biogeography and species richness in Northern Hemisphere treefrogs, combining phylogenetics, ancestral area reconstruction, molecular dating methods, and ecological niche modeling. We reconstructed phylogenetic relationships among 58 hylid taxa using data from two mitochondrial genes (12S, ND1) and two nuclear genes (POMC, c-myc). We find that parallel patterns of species richness have developed in Europe, Asia, and in two separate clades of North American hylids, with the highest richness at midtemperate latitudes (30–35°) on each continent. This pattern is surprising given that hylids overall show higher species richness in the New World tropics and given many standard ecological explanations for the latitudinal diversity gradient (e.g., energy, productivity, mid-domain effect). The replicate pattern in Holarctic hylids seems to reflect specialized tolerance for temperate climate regimes or possibly the effects of competition. The results also suggest that long-range dispersal between continental regions with similar climatic regimes may be easier than dispersal between geographically adjacent regions with different climatic regimes. Our results show the importance of ecology and evolution to large-scale biogeography and the importance of large-scale biogeography to understanding patterns of species richness.
You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. Neither BioOne nor the owners and publishers of the content make, and they explicitly disclaim, any express or implied representations or warranties of any kind, including, without limitation, representations and warranties as to the functionality of the translation feature or the accuracy or completeness of the translations.
Translations are not retained in our system. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website.
Vol. 59 • No. 11