Selective regimes and phenotypic optima could either change smoothly and in a clinal fashion or be spatially organized in a more unpredictable mosaic pattern over the geographic landscape. When natural or sexual selection is driven by intra- or interspecific biotic interactions, fine-grained spatial variation in selective regimes could result in selection mosaics rather than clinal variation in selection. We investigated temporal variation and spatial organization in sexual selection on male body size along an ecological coastal-inland gradient of a polymorphic damselfly Ischnura elegans. Body size increased in a clinal fashion along this gradient: animals were smaller in size at the coast, but became larger in the inland areas. In contrast, the sexual selection regimes on male body size showed evidence of more fine-grained spatial organization with no evidence for a clinal pattern and low spatial autocorrelations between populations. These spatially fine-grained sexual selection regimes varied in sign and magnitude and were driven by a combination of the densities of heritable female color morphs and local female body sizes. We suggest that the spatial organization of the selective regimes can be interpreted as a sexual selection mosaic that is influenced by highly localized density- and frequency-dependent social interactions.
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Vol. 62 • No. 4