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The eastern slope of the tropical Andes and adjacent Amazonian lowlands are home to some of the world's richest biotas. Here we report on recent surveys and inventories of mammal and bird faunas in Peru's Manu National Park and Biosphere Reserve and compile these records with prior literature, museum specimens, and unpublished records to produce updated lists for both taxa. The lists of 222 species of mammals and 1005 species of birds recorded along an elevational transect in the Manu Biosphere Reserve are the largest for any similarly sized area in the world. Mammals recently documented in the reserve include 147 species, 130 with specimen vouchers. Twelve species were new to science, and most of these have been recently described; four others might be new and are currently being evaluated. Twenty-nine mammal species are newly added to Manu's list. The cumulative tally comprises 20 species of opossums, 1 shrew opossum, 2 armadillos, 5 sloths and anteaters, 92 bats, 14 primates, 21 carnivores, 1 tapir, 7 even-toed ungulates, 58 rodents, and 1 rabbit. Avian records include 682 species with specimen vouchers and another 108 documented by recognizable photographs or voice recordings. The avifauna is largely resident, including 911 species that are year-round residents, 42 migrants from the north, 24 migrants from the south or other tropical areas, and 28 vagrants (represented by fewer than three records).