Open Access
How to translate text using browser tools
1 September 2017 Addition of Cinnamon Oil Improves Toxicity of Rotenone to Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Larvae
Zihao Li, Rilin Huang, Weisheng Li, Dongmei Cheng, Runqian Mao, Zhixiang Zhang
Author Affiliations +

Although rotenone is widely used as a pesticide, it has a low level of insecticidal activity on Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). To gain a better understanding of the high tolerance to rotenone, a synergist (cinnamon oil) was added, and the comparative physiological impacts were assessed. After rotenone treatment, a considerable amount of rotenone was discharged in excreta, but extremely low levels were found in the ventral nerve cord and brain. By contrast, the rotenone cinnamon oil treatment group showed an increased amount of rotenone in the ventral nerve cord and brain. The co-toxicity coefficient for rotenone cinnamon was 213, indicating synergism. The midgut cells from insects treated with rotenone alone, and the controls, exhibited no significant differences, whereas those of the rotenone cinnamon oil group had larger intercellular spaces. These findings suggest that rotenone alone could not effectively penetrate the midgut, perhaps accounting for its low toxicity to S. litura. The rotenone cinnamon oil mixture apparently affected midgut cell spacing and membrane permeability, thus effectively increasing rotenone toxicity.

Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), 1 of the most serious crop pests in the world, infests more than 180 plant species (Arumugam et al. 2015). Spodoptera litura is also known as the cotton leaf worm, tobacco cutworm, and tropical armyworm (Li et al. 2014b). It affects the yield of various cultivated crops, vegetables, weeds, and ornamental plants by feeding gregariously on leaves, and causing large economic losses (Kaur et al. 2014; Ahmad & Mehmood 2015). Spodoptera litura is widely distributed throughout the Middle East, East Asia, Oceania, and the Pacific islands, and is found in climates ranging from tropical to temperate (Fu et al. 2015). In China, India, and Japan, its larval stages cause up to 30% damage in several crops, including tobacco, castor, groundnut, tomato, cabbage, cauliflower, cotton, and other crucifers (Kumar et al. 2014).

Chemical control is the most common method of S. litura management because of its ease of use and reliability (Zhou et al. 2011). However, S. litura is capable of developing resistance to various classes of insecticides (Su et al. 2012; Muthusamy et al. 2014). The intensive use of insecticides for the control of this pest has resulted in high levels of resistance to almost all commercial insecticides available for its control worldwide (Rehan and Freed 2014; Babu et al. 2015). Therefore, identification of effective insecticides to control S. litura is a continuing need.

Rotenone is a common agricultural pesticide, as well as a pisciside (Grefte et al. 2015). This compound is a natural toxin derived from the roots and stems of several plants of the family Leguminosae (Rohan et al. 2015). Rotenone possesses significant activity against many taxa, including the mite Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae), the nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner & Buhrer) Nickle (Aphelenchida: Parasitaphelenchidae), and the insect Phyllotreta vittata (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) (Zeng et al. 2002; Hu et al. 2005; Zeng et al. 2009). In general, rotenone has high insecticidal activity (Xu et al. 2010), although it is susceptible to rapid photodegradation (Cabizza et al. 2004).

Cinnamon oil extracted from the cinnamon tree also is used widely (Rao & Gan 2014; Xing et al. 2014), although it is mostly known for its antimicrobial activity (Echegoyen & Nerin 2015). For example, Al-Othman et al. (2013) found that cinnamon oil had significant inhibitory effect on the fungi Aspergillus flavus Link (Trichocomaceae). Wang et al. (2014) reported that a cinnamon oil micro-emulsion is an alternative approach to control gray mold on pears without a negative influence on fruit quality. Todd et al. (2013) revealed that cinnamon oil has the potential for use as an alternative treatment for washing organic baby and mature spinach, as well as iceberg and romaine lettuce.

Rotenone has low insecticidal activity to S. litura (Akhtar et al. 2008). The biochemical mechanism of the high tolerance of S. litura to rotenone remains unclear, and determining an effective synergist to improve its insecticidal activity against S. litura is desirable. This study investigated the mechanisms underlying the low toxicity of rotenone to S. litura larvae. Rotenone or cinnamon oil were used alone, or mixed together, to evaluate their toxicity against S. litura. The possible mechanisms that lead to cinnamon oil increasing the insecticidal activity of rotenone against S. litura also were investigated.

Materials and Methods


Spodoptera litura larvae were collected from Guangzhou, China. The larvae were reared in rectangular plastic jars (30 × 20 × 18 cm); the lids were cut (3 × 3 cm) and replaced with a mesh cloth for aeration. Larvae were reared in an environmentally controlled room (25 ± 1 °C, 14:10 h L:D, and 75% relative humidity [RH]) (Baskar et al. 2011) and fed with an artificial diet adapted from Gahloth et al. (2011). The diet consisted of soy flour (100.0 g), oatmeal (80.0 g), dried brewer yeast (26.0 g), sorbic acid (2.0 g), casein (8.0 g), vitamin C (8.0 g), agar (7.5 g), choline chloride g), inositol (0.2 g), cholesterol (0.2 g), formaldehyde (2.0 mL), and distilled water (500.0 mL). The food was changed daily until pupation, and jars were regularly cleaned to avoid any type of infection. Third, fourth, or fifth instar larvae were used in the experiments.

Table 1.

Chemical composition of cinnamon oil.



Rotenone certified reference standard (97.0%) was purchased from Sigma Chemical Company, Germany. Cinnamon oil, obtained from Yunan Kingtide Notoginseng Industry Co., Ltd., China, was analyzed by gas chromatography—mass spectrometry and its chemical composition is shown in Table 1. Trypsin—ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid digestive juice was acquired from Beijing Solarbio, China. All other general chemicals used were of the highest purity grade that was available commercially. Phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.2–7.4) consisted of distilled water (800.00 mL), sodium chloride (8.00 g), potassium chloride (0.20 g), disodium phosphate (1.15 g), and monopotassium phosphate (0.20 g). The chromogenic agent was comprised of 1% Fast Blue B salt solution and 5% sodium dodecyl sulfate solution (2:5, v/v).


The leaf dip method (Sun et al. 2015) was used to study the toxicity of rotenone and rotenone + cinnamon oil to S. litura third-instar larvae. Insecticide solutions were diluted in a series of concentrations in acetone (5–7 doses), and acetone alone was used as the control. Equal-sized tapioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz; Euphorbiaceae) leaf discs (1 cm diameter) were cut and dipped into the test solutions for 3 s and air dried at room temperature for 1 h. Larvae were placed on the treated leaves in a Petri dish (9 cm diameter). Three replicates were maintained for each treatment with 15 larvae per replicate (N = 45). The experiment was performed at a controlled room (25 ± 1 °C, 14:10 h L:D, and 75% RH). Larval mortality was recorded 24, 48, and 72 h after treatment. Bioassays that showed mortality higher than 10% in the untreated control were discarded, and the entire replicate was repeated.

The LC50 value of each insecticide was determined with probit analysis (Finney 1971). The co-toxicity coefficient of rotenone and cinnamon oil mixture was analyzed by the Sun method (Wen et al. 2013). Co-toxicity coefficients (CTC) <80 are considered antagonistic, CTC >80 or <120 is additive, and CTC >120 is synergistic (Islam et al. 2010).


Larvae were fed on leaves treated with rotenone, or rotenone + cinnamon oil, and water was used as control. Fifth-instar larvae, which were starved for 24 h before the tests, were released on tapioca leaf discs soaked in test solutions (1,000 µg/mL rotenone and 1,000 µg/mL rotenone + 35,000 µg/mL cinnamon oil) in a Petri dish, and covered with a lid. One larva was released in each dish. The larvae were fed with treated leaves at various times. At 3, 9, 12, 18, and 24 h post treatment the larvae and their excreta were collected in new dishes.

The hemolymph was collected using the method of Li et al. (2014a); the larvae were dissected, and the midgut, brain, and ventral nerve cord were collected (Zhao et al. 2015). All samples, including excreta, were stored at -20 °C until use.


A stock solution of rotenone (1,000 mg/kg) was prepared in acetone. Working standard solutions were prepared daily by dilution with the mobile phase (acetonitrile/water; 64:36, v/v).

A high-performance liquid chromatography system (Shimadzu LC-20A, Japan) with an ultraviolet visible detector was used for rotenone analysis. Chromatography was performed using an Agilent Zorbax TCC18 column (4.6 mm × 250.0 mm × 5.0 µm) (Zhou et al. 2014). Isocratic elution was performed with acetonitrile and water (64:36, v/v) for 15 min. The injection volume was 10 µL, and the flow was 1 mL/min. The detection wavelength was set at 299 nm.

Previously homogenized tissue sample was weighed and placed into a 10 mL centrifuge tube with 0.5 g of protease digestive juices. The mixture was agitated in a shaker and heated in a thermostatically controlled water bath (37 °C) until it was colorless. The mixture was cooled to room temperature, and then 1.5 mL of methanol was added. The mixture was mixed end-over-end for 10 min. Subsequently, the organic solvent phase was separated through centrifugation at 3,500 rpm for 5 min, and about 1 mL of the organic extract was used with 1 mL of the mobile phase and injected onto a high-performance liquid chromatography system for analysis.

Recovery assays were performed for rotenone using standards to reach 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/kg concentrations in midgut, brain, ventral nerve cord, hemolymph, and excreta. Five replicates of each concentration were analyzed.


Approximately 1,000 µg/mL concentration of rotenone and 1,000 µg/mL rotenone + 35,000 µg/mL cinnamon oil was used to treat larvae, by feeding, for 24 h. The surviving larvae were washed with cold distilled water and then transferred on ice for dissection. The midgut was fixed with Bouin fixative, dehydrated with an ascending ethanol series, cleared with xylene, and infiltrated with paraffin; afterward, the midgut attached to the slide glass was sectioned, deparaffined, and stained (Kim et al. 2015).

Table 2.

The insecticidal activity of rotenone, with and without cinnamon oil, on third instar larvae of S. litura.


Morphological alterations of the midgut cell structure and organization of each S. litura were recorded and compared with the tissues obtained from the control group. Pictures were taken using a photomicroscope (E200 type, Nikon Corporation, Japan) coupled to a microcamera connected to a computer fitted with an image capture card and ImageLab software (NIS-Elements, Nikon Corporation, Japan).


Data are presented as means ± standard errors for 3 independent experiments. Charts were constructed using Microsoft Office Excel 2007 (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington). A 2-way ANOVA was performed to compare the effects of the chemical and exposure period using SPSS 16.0 (International Business Machines Corporation, North Castle, New York). The means were compared using the Tukey honest significant difference test, with P < 0.05 considered statistically significant.



The comparative toxicity of rotenone, cinnamon oil, and rotenone + cinnamon oil (1:35, m/m) on S. litura is shown in Table 2. Toxicity varied with concentration and exposure period, with the greatest toxicity attained with rotenone + cinnamon oil after 72 h of exposure. The 72 h LC50 values of rotenone, cinnamon oil, and rotenone + cinnamon oil to larvae were 1,081 mg/L, > 10,000 mg/L, and 506 mg/L, respectively. The co-toxicity coefficient of rotenone + cinnamon oil was 213.52.


The retention time of rotenone was approximately 7.51 min (Fig. 1). An external calibration was provided, and the standard calibration curve was constructed by plotting concentration against the peak area. Good linearities were achieved for all active ingredients between 0.01 and 5.00 mg/L, with a correlation coefficient of 0.999. The detection limit was 6.2 µg/kg.

Recovery experiments were carried out at different levels to establish the reliability and validity of the analytical method and determine the efficiency of extraction and clean-up procedures for each larval tissue. The control samples of each tissue were spiked at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/kg, and processed by following the methodology described above. Table 3 shows the recoveries and relative standard deviations of fortified samples. The mean recoveries of rotenone in the hemolymph, midgut, ventral nerve cord, brain, and excreta were within the ranges of 80.15 to 110.46%, 87.66 to 113.09%, 86.97 to 111.67%, 84.30 to 92.35%, and 77.76 to 104.31%, respectively; the relative standard deviations of hemolymph, midgut, ventral nerve cord, brain, and excreta were within 3.43 to 7.21%, 3.00 to 12.79%, 4.01 to 11.40%, 5.35 to 9.55%, and 2.02 to 12.56%, respectively.

Fig. 1.

Liquid chromatogram (A: rotenone standard, B: excreta, C: hemolymph, D: brain, E: ventral nerve cord, F: midgut).



Each fifth-instar larva of S. litura in the testing period was treated with 1,000 µg/mL rotenone and 1,000 µg/mL rotenone + 35,000 µg/mL cinnamon oil. The larvae and their excreta were collected after treatment for 3, 9, 12, 18, and 24 h, and then dissected. The concentration of rotenone in the excreta, midgut, hemolymph, ventral nerve cord, and brain of larvae are shown in Figures 2 to 6. A considerable amount of rotenone was discharged in excreta, and the discharge rate from the larvae treated with rotenone alone was higher than from those treated with rotenone + cinnamon oil. In the group treated with rotenone, the highest rotenone content in the excreta was 177.36 mg/kg. The highest concentrations of rotenone in the midgut, hemolymph, and ventral nerve cord were 29.44, 4.86, and 1.20 mg/kg, respectively. The rotenone contents in the brain were below the detection limit. In strong contrast, the rotenone contents in the ventral nerve cord and brain of larvae treated with rotenone + cinnamon oil were significantly higher. The rotenone contents in the larval tissues treated with 1,000 µg/mL rotenone + cinnamon oil were (in descending order): excreta (93.77 mg/kg), midgut (40.11 mg/kg), hemolymph (20.40 mg/kg), ventral nerve cord (12.07 mg/kg), and brain (8.74 mg/kg).

Table 3.

Recoveries and relative standard deviation of rotenone from fortified samples.


Fig. 2.

The concentration of rotenone in excreta after treatment.* indicates significant difference between the 2 treatments at the same point in time (P < 0.05, Tukey honest significant difference tests).


Fig. 3.

The concentration of rotenone in midgut tissue after treatment.* indicates significant difference between the 2 treatments at the same point in time (P < 0.05, Tukey honest significant difference tests).


Fig. 4.

The concentration of rotenone in hemolymph after treatment.* indicates significant difference between the 2 treatments at the same point in time (P < 0.05, Tukey honest significant difference tests).


Fig. 5.

The concentration of rotenone in ventral nerve cord tissue after treatment.* indicates significant difference between the 2 treatments at the same point in time (P < 0.05, Tukey honest significant difference tests).



Larval midgut cell structure and organization from the control, rotenone, and rotenone + cinnamon oil treatment groups were examined for differences. Figure 7 shows the images of the treated and untreated S. litura peritrophic membrane. The cells of S. litura peritrophic membrane in the control group were single, tightly packed, and clearly visible (Fig. 7A). Other than the slightly wider cell spacing, the cells of the peritrophic membrane in the rotenone treatment group (Fig. 7B) were similar to those in the control. However, the cells in the rotenone + cinnamon oil treatment group were different; cell spacing was wider, and the cell membranes were abnormal (Fig. 7C).

Fig. 6.

The concentration of rotenone in brain tissue after treatment.* indicates significant difference between the 2 treatments at the same point in time (P < 0.05, Tukey honest significant difference tests).


Fig. 7.

Cells of Spodoptera litura midgut peritrophic membrane (A: control, B: rotenone, C: rotenone + cinnamon oil). The arrows show the change in cell structure in response to treatment. Note that in A the cells are single, packed, and clearly visible, whereas in B the cell spacing is wider, and in C there is slightly wider cell spacing, and abnormality of the membrane.



Similarly to Zhu et al. (2006), this study showed the inefficiency of rotenone, when used alone, to poison the larvae of S. litura. Toxicity of stomach poisons may be due to 1 or more of the following: low effective intake, inefficient penetration or inactivation of midgut cells followed by excretion, and detoxification of related enzymes (Wilson 2001; Aizoun et al. 2013). Rotenone is not known to be repellent to larvae of S. litura. In this study, we found that rotenone alone was not very toxic to larvae of S. litura. Rotenone, as a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor, could induce oxidative stress and cell death (Shao et al. 2015). In this case, the low toxicity of rotenone to S. litura is attributed to the inability of the chemical to penetrate the midgut cells, or the occurrence of chemical degradation before reaching the target site.

This study developed a method to monitor rotenone content in several larval tissues. A considerable amount of rotenone was discharged in excreta; low levels were observed in hemolymph, and extremely low levels were found in the ventral nerve cord and brain after rotenone treatment. This suggests that rotenone, applied alone, was poorly absorbed by the midgut of S. litura, and explains the low toxicity of rotenone to S. litura.

Insecticide synergists play a significant role in enhancing the insect control potential of active ingredients by broadening their bioactivity spectrum, countering resistance development, increasing effective commercial lives, and mitigating the residual effects of persistent and highly toxic products by reducing application dosage (Walia et al. 2004). Synergists, including mixed function oxidase, diethyl maleate, piperonylbutoxide, triphenyl phosphate, and S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate, have long been used with insecticides to control pests (Pasay et al. 2009; Sun et al. 2012). In this study, cinnamon oil obtained from plants was used as a synergist to enhance the insect control potential of rotenone.

We demonstrated that the LC50 of rotenone + cinnamon oil was significantly lower than that of rotenone or cinnamon oil used alone. This result was similar to that of Tong and Bloomquist (2013), who found that several plant essential oils show significant synergistic effects with carbaryl. Cinnamon oil has been used in several toothpastes as an antimicrobial substitute (Kalia et al. 2015). Thus, this oil is relatively safe for human consumption.

Cinnamon oil appears to have increased the insecticidal activity of rotenone by increasing the penetrability of the midgut cells and causing increased retention of rotenone in the hemolymph, ventral nerve cord, and brain. Optical microscopy showed disruption of the midgut cell structure when cinnamon oil was added to rotenone, increasing the insecticidal activity of rotenone to S. litura.


This study was funded by Science and Technology Programs of Guangdong Province, China (No. 2016A030313387), Agricultural Technology Demand Research and Demonstration Project of Guangdong Province, China (No. 2016LM3176), and Research Programs of Guangdong Province, China (No.2012B061800091, 2013A061402006).

References Cited


Ahmad M, Mehmood R. 2015. Monitoring of resistance to new chemistry insecticides in Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Pakistan. Journal of Economic Entomology 108: 1279–1288. Google Scholar


Aizoun N, Aikpon R, Padonou GG, Oussou O, Oke-Agbo F, GnanguenonV, Osse R, Akogbeto M. 2013. Mixed-function oxidases and esterases associated with permethrin, deltamethrin and bendiocarb resistance in Anopheles gambiae s.l. in the south-north transect Benin, West Africa. Parasites & Vectors 6: 223. Google Scholar


Akhtar Y, Yeoung YR, Isman MB. 2008. Comparative bioactivity of selected extracts from Meliaceae and some commercial botanical insecticides against two noctuid caterpillars, Trichoplusia ni and Pseudaletia unipuncta. Phytochemistry Reviews 7: 77–88. Google Scholar


Al-Othman MR, Abd El-Aziz ARM, Mahmoud M.A. 2013. Inhibitory effect of cinnamon oil on aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus isolated from shelled hazelnuts. Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology 7: 395–400. Google Scholar


Arumugam E, Muthusamy B, Dhamodaran K, Thangarasu M, Kaliyamoorthy K, Kuppusamy E. 2015. Pesticidal activity of Rivina humilis L. (Phytolaccaceae) against important agricultural polyphagous field pest, Spodoptera litura (Fab.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Coastal Life Medicine 3: 389–394. Google Scholar


Babu SR, Kalyan RK, Ameta GS, Meghwal ML. 2015. Analysis of outbreak of tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) on soybean. Journal of Agrometeorology 17: 61–66. Google Scholar


Baskar K, Sasikumar S, Muthu C, Kingsley S, Ignacimuthu S. 2011. Bioefficacy of Aristolochia tagala Cham. against Spodoptera litura Fab. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 18: 23–27. Google Scholar


Cabizza M, Angioni A, Melis M, Cabras M, Tuberoso CV, Cabras P. 2004. Rotenone and rotenoids in cube resins, formulations, and residues on olives. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52: 288–293. Google Scholar


Echegoyen Y, Nerin C. 2015. Performance of an active paper based on cinnamon essential oil in mushrooms quality. Food Chemistry 170: 30–36. Google Scholar


Finney DJ. 1971. Probit Analysis, 3rd edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. Google Scholar


Fu X, Zhao X, Xie B, Ali A, Wu K. 2015. Seasonal pattern of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) migration across the Bohai Strait in northern China. Journal of Economic Entomology 108: 525–538. Google Scholar


Gahloth D, Shukla U, Birah A, Gupta GP, Kumar PA, Dhaliwal HS, Sharma AK. 2011. Bioinsecticidal activity of Murraya koenigii miraculin-like protein against Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 78: 132–144. Google Scholar


Grefte S, Wagenaars JAL, Jansen R, Willems PHGM, Koopman WJH. 2015. Rotenone inhibits primary murine myotube formation via Raf-1 and ROCK2. Biochimicaet Biophysica Acta 1853: 1606–1614. Google Scholar


Hu L, Xu H, Liang M. 2005. The characterization of aqueous nanosuspension of rotenone and the bioactivity against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Chinese Journal of Pesticide Science 7: 171–175. Google Scholar


Islam MS, Hasan MM, Lei C, Mucha-Pelzer T, Mewis I, Ulrichs C. 2010. Direct and admixture toxicity of diatomaceous earth and monoterpenoids against the storage pests Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) and Sitophilus oryzae (L.). Journal of Pest Science 83: 105–112. Google Scholar


Kalia M, Yadav VK, Singh PK, Sharma D, Pandey H, Narvi SS, Agarwal V. 2015. Effect of cinnamon oil on quorum sensing-controlled virulence factors and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PLoS ONE 10. doi. org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135495. Google Scholar


Kaur T, Vasudev A, Sohal SK, Manhas RK. 2014. Insecticidal and growth inhibitory potential of Streptomyces hydrogenans DH16 on major pest of India, Spodoptera litura(Fab.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). BMC Microbiology 14. Google Scholar


Kim E, Park Y, Kim Y. 2015. A transformed bacterium expressing double-stranded RNA specific to integrin beta 1 enhances Bt toxin efficacy against a polyphagous insect pest, Spodoptera exigua. PLoS ONE 10. Google Scholar


Kumar A, Negi N, Haider SZ, Negi DS. 2014. Composition and efficacy of Zanthoxylum alatum essential oils and extracts against Spodoptera litura. Chemistry of Natural Compounds 50: 920–923. Google Scholar


Li L, Xing D, Li Q, Xiao Y, Ye M, Yang Q. 2014a. Determination of albendazole and metabolites in silkworm Bombyx mori hemolymph by ultrafast liquid chromatography tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. PLoS ONE 9. Google Scholar


Li L, Zhu Y, Jin S, Zhang X. 2014b. Pyramiding Bt genes for increasing resistance of cotton to two major lepidopteran pests: Spodoptera litura and Heliothis armigera. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 36: 2717–2727. Google Scholar


Muthusamy R, Vishnupriya M, Shivakumar MS. 2014. Biochemical mechanism of chlorantraniliprole resistance in Spodoptera litura (Fab) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology 17: 865–869. Google Scholar


Pasay C, Arlian L, Morgan M, Gunning R, Rossiter L, Holt D, Walton S, Beckham S, McCarthy J. 2009.The effect of insecticide synergists on the response of scabies mites to pyrethroid acaricides. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 3. Google Scholar


Rao PV, Gan SH. 2014. Cinnamon: a multifaceted medicinal plant. Evidencebased Complementary and Alternative Medicine: eCAM Google Scholar


Rehan A, Freed S. 2014. Resistance selection, mechanism and stability of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to methoxyfenozide. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 110: 7–12. Google Scholar


Rohan M, Fairweather A, Grainger N. 2015. Using gamma distribution to determine half-life of rotenone, applied in freshwater. Science of the Total Environment 527: 246–251. Google Scholar


Shao L, Figtree G, Ma A, Zhang P. 2015. GAPDH-knockdown reduce rotenone-induced H9C2 cells death via autophagy and anti-oxidative stress pathway. Toxicology Letters 234: 162–171. Google Scholar


Su J, Lai T, Li J. 2012. Susceptibility of field populations of Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in China to chlorantraniliprole and the activities of detoxification enzymes. Crop Protection 42: 217–222. Google Scholar


Sun S, Cheng Z, Fan J, Cheng X, Pang Y. 2012. The utility of camptothecin as a synergist of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki and Nucleopolyhedroviruses against Trichoplusia ni and Spodoptera exigua. Journal of Economic Entomology 105: 1164–1170. Google Scholar


Sun LJ, Liu YJ, Shen CP. 2015. The effects of exogenous 20-hydroxyecdysone on the feeding, development, and reproduction of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). Florida Entomologist 98: 606–612. Google Scholar


Todd J, Friedman M, Patel J, Jaroni D, Ravishankar S. 2013. The antimicrobial effects of cinnamon leaf oil against multi-drug resistant Salmonella newport on organic leafy greens. International Journal of Food Microbiology 166: 193–199. Google Scholar


Tong F, Bloomquist JR. 2013. Plant essential oils affect the toxicities of carbaryl and permethrin against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 50: 826–832. Google Scholar


Walia S, Saha S, Parmar BS. 2004. Liquid chromatographic method for the analysis of two plant based insecticide synergists dillapiole and dihydrodillapiole. Journal of Chromatography A 1047: 229–233. Google Scholar


Wang Y, Zhao R, Yu L, Zhang Y, He Y, Yao J. 2014. Evaluation of cinnamon essential oil microemulsion and its vapor phase for controlling postharvest gray mold of pears (Pyrus pyrifolia). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 94: 1000–1004. Google Scholar


Wen H, Zhang Q, Cheng, D, Zhang, Z, Xu, H, Song X. 2013. Cassia oil as a substitute solvent for xylene for rotenone EC and its synergistic activities. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 105: 189–196. Google Scholar


Wilson TG. 2001. Resistance of Drosophila to toxins. Annual Review of Entomology 46: 545–571. Google Scholar


Xing F, Hua H, Selvaraj JN, Yuan Y, Zhao Y, Zhou L, Liu Y. 2014. Degradation of fumonisin B-1 by cinnamon essential oil. Food Control 38: 37–40. Google Scholar


Xu D, Zhou Y, Lin L, Zhang Z, Zhang J, Lu S, Yang F, Huang P. 2010. Determination of rotenone residues in foodstuffs by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Agricultural Sciences in China 9: 1299–1308. Google Scholar


Zeng X, Zhang S, Fang J, Han J. 2002. Comparison of the bioactivity of elliptone and rotenone against several agricultural insect pests. Acta Entomologica Sinica 45: 611–616. Google Scholar


Zeng X, Zhu C, Gao Y. 2009. Solubility, stability, and synergistic acaricidal activity of rotenone in mandarin oil. International Journal of Acarology 35: 169–173. Google Scholar


Zhao G, Zhang Y, Liu Y, Li B, Chen Y, Xu Y, Xia Q, Shen W, Wei Z. 2015. Promoter analysis and RNA interference of CYP6ab4 in the silkworm Bombyx mori. Molecular Genetics and Genomics 290: 1943–1953. Google Scholar


Zhou Y, Wang K, Yan C, Li W, Li H, Zhang N, Zhang Z. 2014. Effect of two formulations on the decline curves and residue levels of rotenone in cabbage and soil under field conditions. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 104: 23–27. Google Scholar


Zhou Z, Xu Z, ChenZ. 2011. Co-efficacy of a trap crop, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott and a biological agent, Spodoptera litura nuclear polyhedral virus on the tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) in the tobacco field. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 43: 689–699. Google Scholar


Zhu JY, Xiao C, Ke XJ, Ye M, Yuan SY, Li ZY, Yang L, Lu J, Zhu WL. 2006. Study on toxicity of azadirachtin and rotenone and their admixture against Spodoptera litura (F.). Journal of Yunnan Agriculture University 21: 315–319. Google Scholar
Zihao Li, Rilin Huang, Weisheng Li, Dongmei Cheng, Runqian Mao, and Zhixiang Zhang "Addition of Cinnamon Oil Improves Toxicity of Rotenone to Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Larvae," Florida Entomologist 100(3), 515-521, (1 September 2017).
Published: 1 September 2017
botanical insecticide
insecticida botánico
midgut penetration
paraffin section
penetración del intestino medio
sección de parafina
Back to Top