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1 June 2004 Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Bermuda
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For more than 50 years, two exotic ant species, Linepithema humile (Mayr) and Pheidole megacephala (F.), have been battling for ecological supremacy in Bermuda. Here we summarize known ant records from Bermuda, provide an update on the conflict between the dominant ant species, and evaluate the possible impact of the dominant species on the other ants in Bermuda. We examined ant specimens from Bermuda representing 20 species: Brachymyrmex heeri Forel, B. obscurior Forel, Camponotus pennsylvanicus (De Geer), Cardiocondyla emeryi Forel, C. obscuriorWheeler, Crematogaster sp., Hypoponera opaciceps (Mayr),H. punctatissima (Roger), L. humile, Monomorium monomorium Bolton, Odontomachus ruginodisSmith, Paratrechina longicornis (Latreille), P. vividula (Nylander), P. megacephala, Plagiolepis alluaudi Forel, Solenopsis (Diplorhoptrum) sp., Tetramorium caldarium Roger, T. simillimum (Smith), Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger), and an undetermined Dacetini. Records for all but three (H. punctatissima, P. vividula, W. auropunctata) include specimens from 1987 or later. We found no specimens to confirm records of several other ant species, including Monomorium pharaonis(L.) and Tetramorium caespitum(L.). Currently, L. humile dominates most of Bermuda, while P. megacephala appear to be at its lowest population levels recorded. Though inconspicuous, B. obscurior is common and coexists with both dominant species. Paratrechina longicornis has conspicuous populations in two urban areas. Three other ant species are well established, but inconspicuous due to small size (B. heeri, Solenopsis sp.) or subterranean habits (H. opaciceps). All other ant species appear to be rare, including at least one, O. ruginodis, which was apparently more common in the past.
James K. Wetterer and Andrea L. Wetterer "Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Bermuda," Florida Entomologist 87(2), (1 June 2004).[0212:AHFOB]2.0.CO;2

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