Two colorful medium-sized moths, Camptoloma kishidai sp. nov. and C. bella sp. nov., from South China, are described and illustrated. C. kishidai can be recognized from the related species C. carum Kishida, from Taiwan by the reddish yellow-ground color on the forewing upperside, the tornal area without an irregular red pink patch, and by antemedian and postmedian fasciae connected at their lower ends by a longitudinal fascia. C. bella is distinguished from the allied species C. interiorata (Walker) by the characteristics of a reddish patch, and discocellular, antemedian and postmedian fasciae. A key to the species of the genus is supplied. All the type specimens are deposited in the Laboratory of Insect Ecology, South China Agricultural University.
As a part of biodiversity conservation for sustainable development, an inventory of biodiversity is important, particularly in the areas of tropical and subtropical regions that housed such numbers of species. In comparison with higher plants and larger animals, the inventory of insects is still fragmentary and incomplete. South China, within the Indo-Australian Region, is one of the major sites of biodiversity in China. In order to appeal public awareness and to develop conservation measures in this region, we started the inventory work on macrolepidoptera, including butterflies and larger moths, at selected sites.
Recently, we conducted a macrolepidoptera survey in Shimentai Nature Reserve, Guangdong Province and Cenwanglaoshan Nature Reserve, Guangxi Province. We found two species of the genus Camptoloma new to science. Here we give the descriptions, along with a key to the genus.
The genus Camptoloma consists of medium sized, colorful moths and was established by Felder (1874), with Camptoloma erythropygum its type species. It is closely related to the genus Leucopardus Hampson (1894) and forms a natural group with the latter (Kishida, 1984). Recently, the genus Leucopardus Hampson has been considered a synonym of the genus Camptoloma Felder by Holloway (1988), who moved the genus to the family Noctuidae from the family Arctiidae based on anatomical characters. In this paper, we regard Camptoloma and Leucopardus to be separated genera in agreement with some other authors (Kishida 1984; Zolotuhin & Witt 2000) due to the differences in the wing pattern, although male genitalia of the two genera are closely related in structure.
Currently, five species of the genus Camptoloma have been documented: C. interiorata (Walker ) from China, Japan, Korea and the Russian Far East; C. binotatum Butler, 1881, from N. India and Assam, Nepal, Myanmar, and S. China; C. carum Kishida, 1984, from Taiwan; C. vanata Fang, 1994, from Jiangxi and Hainan of China, N. Vietnam, and C. mangpua Zolotuhin & Witt 2000, from Sikkim.
Materials and Methods
Specimens were collected by light traps during the field surveys conducted in Cenwanglaoshan and Shimentai Nature Reserves. The type specimens are deposited in South China Agricultural University (SCAU).
Photographs of specimens were taken with a Nikon Coolpix995, along with a Leica MZ125 for genitalia figures. Digital images were imported into Adobe Photoshop 5.0 for labeling and plate composition.
Camptoloma kishidai sp. nov. (Fig. 1)
Wing expanse 37 mm, length of forewing 18 mm, antenna length 9 mm. Head comparatively small; frons covered with yellow scales, subequal to the breadth of eyes; labial palpi uniformly orange yellow, rather short, coated with long scales and sparse bristles ventrally; eyes dark brown, naked; antenna filiform, dark gray except for a darker part at distal N. Thorax yellow, with dorsal median and lateral brown streaks, the former one rather slimmer; legs yellow except for dorsal femura, inner tibiae and tarsi dark brown. Abdomen orange-yellow with crimson end.
Forewing nearly triangular, costa with basal N prominently arched, termen and dorsum with mid-part curved outwardly, apex pointed and tornus nearly rounded; hindwing almost rounded, costa straight. Forewing ground color reddish-orange with dark brown fasciae and spots, which is consisting of antemedian, discocellar, postmedian, submarginal and a longitudinal fascia placed on the lower basal wing, and two dark brown spots on the lower termen near tornus.
Antemedian, postmedian and discocellular fasciae distinct and well defined, the former two straight, nearly parallel to each other, and with their lower ends connected by a longitudinal dark fascia; discocellular fascia short, curved inwardly, placed nearer to antemedian fascia than to postmedian fascia; submarginal fascia obsolete, traceable; longitudinal fascia on the lower basal wing straight and with its distal end nearly arriving the lower part of antemedian fascia; marginal fascia and tornal reddish patch that represented in other Camptoloma species completely untraceable; cilia orange red. Hindwing ground color light orange-red, without marking, cilia orange. Underside of both wings uniformly orange-yellow.
Holotype: Female, Shimentai Nature Reserve, 400 m altitude, 24°28’N, 113°23’E, Yingde County, Guangdong Province, China, 18-IV-2003, leg. Guo-Hua Huang.
Paratype 1 female, same data as holotype.
Etymology: The name of the species is named after Mr. Y. Kishida of Tokyo, who supplied us with valuable references and suggestions.
Distribution: China (Guangdong Province).
Biology: The specimens were captured at night by light trapping, although there is a record of species in the related genus Leucopardus Hampson being taken flying by day (Holloway, 1988).
The new species is readily recognized from other members in the genus Camptoloma by the reddish-yellow forewing ground color, tornal area concolorous with the ground color, without reddish patch represented in some other related species, antemedian and postmedian fasciae connected at their lower ends by a longitudinal fascia.
Camptoloma bella sp. nov. (Figs. 2 and 3 and Fig. 4)
Wing expanse 45 mm, length of forewing 23 mm, antenna length 7.5 mm. Head comparatively small; frons covered with yellow scales, with upper portion a little gray, slightly broader than the breadth of eyes; labial palpi yellow, rather short, coated with long scales and sparse bristles ventrally; legs yellow, apart from tibiae and tarsi black outwardly; eyes dark brown, naked; antenna filiform, black with white intersegmental rings. Thorax yellow with dorsal median and lateral brown streaks. Abdomen orange yellow.
Forewing triangular, somewhat longer, costa slightly arched, termen nearly straight, dorsum slightly curved, apex pointed, tornus near rounded. Hindwing nearly rounded, costa straight. Forewing ground color yellow, with typical Camptoloma wing pattern. Antemedian, postmedian, disocellular, submarginal and marginal fasciae dark brown and well defined, the former two fasciae slant from costa to tornal red patch, gradually narrowed to their lower ends. Discocellular fascia fine, placed nearer to postmedian fascia than to antemeddian fascia, with its lower part gradually shaded to the end of postmedian fascia. Submarginal fascia slightly curved inwardly, marginal fascia straight. The two longitudinal fasciae placed on the lower basal wing straight, well defined and nearly extending to the reddish patch; the two dark brown spots on lower termen much larger and well developed; the reddish patch in tornal area much smaller. Hindwing ground color yellow, without distinct marking. Cilia yellowish-white.
Male genitalia. Tegumen broad, uncus slim with pointed end, saccus short, rod-like, valva long, strongly constricted medially, costa narrow with a kidney-like costal lobe; cucullus densely coated with fragile spines; juxta with long lateral extension; aedeagus with well developed cornuti.
Female. Wing expanse 45 mm, length of forewing 23.5 mm, antenna length 8.5 mm. Similar to male in wing pattern, but wings are slightly broader, abdomen with distal end concolorous.
Holotype: Male, Cengwanglaoshan Nature Reserve, 1200 m altitude, 24°35’N, 106°40’E, Tianlin County, Guangxi Province, China, 28-V-2002, leg. Min Wang.
Paratype: 1 Female, same data as holotype.
Etymology: The name of the species, bella, is come from its colorful wing pattern.
Distribution: China (Guangxi Province).
The new species is related to C. binotata Butler in appearance, but the characteristics of reddish patch, discocellular, antemedian and postmedian fasciae make it unmistakable.
Members in the genus Camptoloma have a similar forewing pattern, the typical pattern incl. yellowish ground color with dark brown fasciae, including five transverse fasciae (e.g., antemedian, discocellular, postmedian, submarginal and marginal fasciae), and two longitudinal brown fasciae on the lower basal wings; a reddish patch at tornal region; black spots in cilia located at lower part of the termen; hindwing ground color uniform, without any marking.
The development or absence of the above mentioned characters supply useful diagnoses for different species. The most distinguished species in the genus is C. kishidai, which has the reddish ground color, with complete reduction of the reddish patch at tornal region that is commonly represented in other species. The second readily identified species is C. vanata among the remaining species with yellowish ground color, by its complete absence of most dark brown fasciae including antemedian, postmedian, submarginal and marginal fasciae. The third one is C. carum from Tawain with its submarginal fascia obsolete and marginal fascia absent.
The next four, C. interiorata, C. binotata, C. mangpua, and C. bella had typical Camptoloma wing patterns with all the fasciae and reddish patch presented. The easily recognized one is C. mangpua for its ill-developed tornal angle and curved antemedian fascia. C. interiorata is separated from the remaining ones by its finer and nearly paralleled antemedian and postmedian fasciae. C. binotata and C. bella are similar in appearance, but the discocellar fascia in C. bella is placed more outwardly than that in C. binotata. Moreover, the reddish patch is less developed and the submarginal fascia is much broader in C. bella.
Though the economic importance of the two new species is uncertain, there is one species of the genus, Camptoloma interiorata Walker in NE. China, reported as an important insect pest on Quercus ssp., Sapium sebiferum et al. (Fang 2000; Zheng 2001).
For the convenience of field identification, we present a key to the known species of the genus Camptoloma as follows:
Key to Species of the Genus Camptoloma Felder, 1874
1. Forewing ground color reddish-yellow
Forewing ground color yellow
2. Forewing upperside with submarginal fascia absent
Forewing upperside with submarginal fascia present
3. Forewing upperside with antemedian and postmedian fasciae present
Forewing upperside without antemedian and postmedian fasciae
4. Forewing narrow without distinct anal angle, antemedian fascia with middle part curved outwardly
Forewing broader with distinct anal angle, antemedian fascia straight, or not curved outwardly
5. Forewing upperside with discocellular bar much nearer to postmedian fascia that to antemedian fascia
Forewing upperside with discocellular bar not as above stated
6. Forewing upperside with postmedian fascia much broader than submarginal fascia
Forewing upperside with postmedian and submarginal fascia similar in breadth
We are grateful to Mr. Y. Kishida for constructive criticism of the manuscript, as well as to Dr. M. Owada and Mr. K. Yazaki, all in Tokyo for offering valuable articles. For the field survey, we are indebted to Mr. Guo-Zhong Xie, Mr. Ling-Sheng Huang, of Shimentai Nature Reserve, and Mr. Yao Pan of Cenwanglaoshan Nature Reserve, for their kind assistance. This study was partly supported by Pro Natura Foundation—Japan and Nature Conservation Society of Japan.