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1 December 2008 Synonymy of Phanerota appendiculata and P. insigniventris (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae), and First Record of P. appendiculata in Korea
Yoon-Ho Kim, Kee-Jeong Ahn
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Phanerota appendiculata (Motschulsky) was first described as Gyrophaena appendiculata (Motschulsky, 1858). Later, Cameron (1934) proposed the new subgenus Acanthophaena under Gyrophaena Mannerheim, based on male characters of abdominal sternite V with lateral margins expanded as a lamelliform process, and with a short mesosternal process. In 1939, Cameron redescribed G. (A.) appendiculata with 2 new species, including G. insigniventris. However, Seevers (1951) recognized that the placement of Acanthophaena under Gyrophaena was not correct. Finally, Ashe (1984) presented evidence that Acanthophaena should be treated as a subgenus of Phanerota Casey.

While studying Korean Gyrophaena, we found a species with a very unusual body form. After detailed comparisons with many syntypes of Gyrophaena, the species was identified as Phanerota appendiculata. In addition, syntypes of P. insigniventris were very similar to P. appendiculata. Diagnostic characteristics (structures of antennae, tergite VIII, median lobe, and paramere) of P. insigniventris were not sufficient to maintain the separation of P. insigniventris and P. appendiculata. Therefore, after studying 3 specimens of P. insigniventris and 59 specimens of P. appendiculata, we synonymize P. insigniventris under P. appendiculata and report P. appendiculata for the first time in Korea.

Phanerota appendiculata (Motschulsky)

Gyrophaena appendiculata Motschulsky, 1858: 228; Cameron, 1934: 23; 1939: 60.

Phanerota appendiculata: Ashe, 1984: 238.

Gyrophaena insigniventris Cameron, 1939: 60. New synonym

Description. Body length 3.2-3.8 mm. Body (Fig. 1) flattened dorsoventrally. Color usually brown, head and tergites V-VI dark brown. Body surface glossy and slightly pubescent. Head about 1.7 × wider than long. Surface glossy with some macrosetae. Eyes extremely large, occupying most of lateral margin of head, eyes coarsely faceted. Infraorbital carina well developed. Antenna (Fig. 2A) pubescent. Antennomere 4 about 1.8 × longer than wide, 5-7 about 1.1 × longer than wide, 8-10 as long as wide. Labrum transverse, major setae distinct. Tip of lacinia with well developed spore brush. Mandible not bifid, strongly curved ventrally, patch of denticles present on ventral molar region. Labium with ligula entire, protruded, more or less pointed. Labial palpi with 2 articles. Pronotum slightly transverse, broadly oval, about 1.5 × wider than long. Surface with fine punctures, macrosetae scattered at side. Hypomera visible in lateral aspect. Elytra about 1.6 × longer than wide, outer apical angles slightly sinuated. Surface glossy and macrosetae scattered at side. Mesosternal process with medial longitudinal carina extended to middle of mesocoxal cavity. Coxae widely separated. Tarsal formula 4-4-5. Abdominal tergites II-VII with macrosetae scattered at side. Male tergites III-V transversely impressed, tergite VII with 6 tubercles on hind margin. Male tergite VIII (Fig. 2C) with 3 processes, median one small, lateral ones large. Female tergite VIII (Fig. 2B) with 4 processes, inner ones small and acute at apex. Male with abdominal sternite V with each lateral margin expanded lamelliform process. Median lobe (Fig. 2E) long, slender and spine-like; flagellum long, slender and more or less whip-like in lateral aspect. Spermatheca (Fig. 2D) with neck elongate and coiled proximal to plate-like flange.

Materials Examined. Syntype, 3, labeled as follows: Nilambur, Madras, S. N. Chatterjee, Gyrophaena insigniventris Cam. Type, M. Cameron, Bequest. B. M. 1955-147. Singapore, 1♂, Bukit Panjang, Singapore, Dr. Cameron, Gyrophaena appendiculata Motschulsky, M. Cameron, Bequest. B. M. 1955-147; 2♀, Chungnam National Univ., Gung-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon-city, Chungnam Province, Korea, 13.vii.2006, SJ Park, HW Kim, YH Kim, ex mushroom; 12♂♀, Gapsa, Gyeryongsan, Gongju-city, Chungnam Province, Korea, 2.vii.2000, MH Kim, ex mushroom; 14♂♀, same data as former except for 12.vii.2000 (2♂, on slide); 9♂♀, same data as former except for 30.vii.2002; 2♂, same data as former except for Sangsin-ri, Banpo-myeon, 26.viii.2001; 3♂♀, Gwangdeoksan, Gwangdeok-ri, Gwangdeok-myeon, Cheonan-city, Chungnam Province, Korea, 22.vii.2000, MH Kim, ex mushroom; 1♂, Secheon park, Sikjangsan, Seocheon-dong, Jung-gu, Daejeon-city, Chungnam Province, Korea, 5.viii.2000, MH Kim, ex mushroom; [GG] 10♂♀, Girisan, Hyeondeok-myeon, Pyeongtaek-city, Gyeonggi Province, Korea,, SJ Park, HW Kim, YH Kim, ex mushroom (3♂1♀, on slide).

Distribution. Korea, China, Japan, and India.

We thank Dr. R. Booth (The Natural History Museum, London, England) for the loan of type specimens. This research is supported by the Ministry of Environment of the Korean Government (Grant No. 2007-491-1) to K.-J. Ahn.


A taxonomic study of Phanerota appendiculata (Motschulsky) in Korea is presented. The genus and species are recognized for the first time in Korea. Phanerota insigniventris (Cameron) is synonymized under P. appendiculata. A habitus illustration and line drawings of diagnostic characters are provided.

References Cited


J. S. Ashe 1984. Generic revision of the subtribe Gyrophaenina (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae) with a review of the described subgenera and major features of evolution Quaest. Entomol 20:129–349. Google Scholar


M. Cameron 1934. The staphylinid Coleoptera of the New Hebrides. Stylops 3:20–34. Google Scholar


CameronM 1939. Fauna of British India including Ceylon and Burma. Coleoptera. Staphylinidae. Vol. IV. Parts I & II. Taylor & Francis, London: 59-61. Google Scholar


V. Motschulsky 1858. Énumeration des nouvelles espèces de coléoptères rapportés de ses voyages. Bull. Soc. Imp. des Nat. Moscou 31(3):204–264. Google Scholar


C. H. Seevers 1951. A revision of the North American and European staphylinid beetles of the subtribe Gyrophaenae (Aleocharinae: Bolitocharini). Fieldiana Zool 23:659–762. Google Scholar

Fig. 1.

Habitus. Phanerota appendiculata, male, 3.8 mm.


Fig. 2.

Phanerota appendiculata, A: antenna, ventral aspect; B: female tergite VIII, ventral aspect; C: male tergite VIII, ventral aspect; D: spermatheca, lateral aspect; E: median lobe, lateral aspect. Scale bars = 0.1 mm.

Yoon-Ho Kim and Kee-Jeong Ahn "Synonymy of Phanerota appendiculata and P. insigniventris (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae), and First Record of P. appendiculata in Korea," Florida Entomologist 91(4), 690-692, (1 December 2008).
Published: 1 December 2008
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