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1 June 2009 Pupal Development, Longevity and Behavior of Carmenta theobromae (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae)
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Pupal duration, longevity, and behavior of males and females of Carmenta theobromae (Busck), an insect pest of economic importance in cocoa plantations (Theobroma cacao (L.)) were studied. Perforated pods from cocoa farms in Curiepe, Miranda state, Venezuela were collected and taken to INIA-Miranda. Carmenta theobromae larvae and pupa were extracted from infested pods. All stages (larvae, pupae, and adults) were kept at 28 ± 5°C, 70 ± 15% RH and a photoperiod 12: 12 (L:D). Emergence and daily activity of adults kept in observation chambers was recorded. Pupal development time was 12.78 ± 2.50 d and adult longevity was 5.10 ± 1.96 and 4.39 ± 1.57 d for males and females, respectively. Emergence of adults began between 0730 and 0800 h, and continued until 1400 and 1500 h for females and males, respectively. Adult emergence peaked at 0800 h for both sexes, and the adult sex ratio was 1.2:1 (male: female). Female calling behavior occurred between 1430 and 1930 h, with a pronounced peak at 1730 h, and continued until the third day after emergence. This behavior coincided with more intense flight, walking or wing fluttering in males. The results suggest that C. theobromae females release a sex pheromone between 1430 and 1930 h.Translation by the authors.
Franklin Morillo, Pedro Sánchez, Beatriz Herrera, Carmen Liendo-Barandiaran, Wilfredo Muñoz and José Vicente Hernández "Pupal Development, Longevity and Behavior of Carmenta theobromae (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae)," Florida Entomologist 92(2), (1 June 2009).

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