Open Access
How to translate text using browser tools
1 March 2012 Tachinid Flies Associated with Tibraca limbativentris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)
Patrícia Menegaz De Farias, Josué Sant'ana, Luiza Rodrigues Redaelli, Silvio Shigueo Nihei
Author Affiliations +

The rice stalk stink bug, Tibraca limbativentris (Stål 1860) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a major pest of rice in Latin American countries including Argentina, Brazil, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, Dominican Republic and Venezuela (Fernandes & Grazia 1998; Borges et al. 2006; Pantoja et al. 2007). The few reports of natural enemies associated with T. limbativentris are restricted to egg parasitoids, e.g., Oencyrtus submetallicus (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), Telenomus podisi Ashmead 1893 (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) and Trissolcus urichi Crawford 1913 (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) in northeastern Brazil (State of Maranhão) (Maciel et al. 2007), and T. podisi and T. urichi, in southern Brazil (State of Santa Catarina) (Riffel et al. 2010). With regard to entomopathogens, the fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) have been found on rice stalk stink bugs (RSSB) only after artificial infection (Martins & Lima 1994; Martins et al. 1997; Martins et al. 2004). This work reports the incidence of tachinid flies parasitizing T. limbativentris during the fallow period in southern Brazil.

A total of 60 pairs of RSSB of unknown age were collected from under rice straw after harvest in Jul 2011 in the municipality of Eldorado do Sul, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (30fi01_221.gif 02′ S; 51° 23′ W). Each individual was placed in a plastic box (15 × 10 cm) with 10 g of rice straw sterilized with sodium hypochlorite solution (2%), for 30 min, and covered with voile. The bugs were kept under controlled conditions (25 ± 1 fi01_221.gifC; 60 ± 10% RH; 12:12 h L: D) without food, and inspected daily for pupae, and the straw was moistened with distilled water every 3 d.

The bugs were inspected daily and, whenever present, tachinid pupae were collected and stored under the same controlled conditions in Petri dishes (Ø5 cm), with moistened cotton until the parasitoid emergence. Specimens were deposited in the Entomological Collection of the Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil (MZSP).

Adults of 2 species of Tachinidae emerged, both belonging to subfamily Phasiinae: Cylindromyia brasiliana (Townsend 1927) (Cylindromyiini) and Phasia (Paraphorantha) sp. (Phasiini). The parasitism by these 2 tachinid species was found only on males of T. limbativentris (35%/total collected). According to Aldrich (1995) and Aldrich & Zhang (2002), sex pheromones of male pentatomids might act as kairomones for the Scelionidae and Tachinidae; which could explain our results.

Cylindromyia brasiliana emerged (13 females and 3 males) from 71.4% of the parasitized bugs. Cylindromyia Meigen, 1803 (Tachinidae, Phasiinae, Cylindromyiini) is a species-rich genus distributed almost worldwide and with 25 species in the Latin America (Guimarães 1976). Several studies report species of this genus parasitizing pentatomid bugs with records in North America (Arnaud 1978; Eger & Ables 1981), South America (Guimarães 1977), Asia (Sâmet et al. 1977; Honda 1985; Nishiyama et al. 1995; Markova 1999; Richter & Markova 1999; Tillman 2008), Europe (Dupuis 1963; Gordún & Tschorsnig 2008), and Australia (Coombs & Khan 1997; Kay 2002). On the other hand, the only host record in South America is for C. porteri (Brèthes 1925) on the pentatomids Acledra albocostata (Spinola 1852) and A. dimidiaticollis (Spinola 1852) in Chile (Guimarães 1971, 1977). This is the first host, T. limbativentris, reported for a tropical South American species of Cylindromyia.

The second tachinid species, Phasia (Paraphorantha) sp., was observed in 28.6% of parasitized bugs, and 4 females and 1 male emerged. Phasia Latreille 1804 (Tachinidae, Phasiinae, Phasiini) is a worldwide distributed genus including about 110 species (Guimarães 1971; Sun & Marshall 2003; O'Hara & Wood 2004). Phasia contains 34 Neotropical species, two of them previously belonging to the genus Paraphorantha Townsend 1915 (now in synonymy with Phasia). The specimens collected in this study were not identified to the species level, but they correspond undoubtedly to a species formerly included in Paraphorantha. The South American Phasia have been recorded as parasitoids of a few species of Pyrrhocoridae, Coreidae and Meloidae (Guimarães 1977). According to Sun & Marshall (2003), Phasia species present low parasitism rates, varying from < 1% to 11% of parasitized individuals.

There are few reports of tachinid parasitoids in South America pentatomids, e.g., Gymnoclytia paulista (Townsend, 1929) and Beskia aelops Walker 1849 were reported on Oebalus ypsilongriseus (DeGeer, 1773) (Vecchio 1993) in rice crops, and B. aelops was registered parasitizing the small rice stink bug Oebalus poecilus (Dallas 1851) in Guiana (Guimarães 1977; Sutherland & Bahaeally 2002).

This is the first record of C. brasiliana and Phasia (Paraphorantha) sp. as parasitoids on T. limbativentris. These data contribute to the knowledge of natural enemies associated with this stink bug, and may provide further management support to the biological control of T. limbativentris on rice crops.


Species-level identifications are important to integrated management for sustainable rice production. Adults of T. limbativentris (Stål 1860) (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae) were collected from under the straw during the fallow season of the irrigated rice crop in Eldorado do Sul municipality, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Two species of Tachinidae were recorded on the rice stalk stink bug: Cylindromyia brasiliana (Townsend 1927) and Phasia (Paraphorantha) sp. This is the first report of these species parasitizing T. limbativentris under natural conditions.


We express thanks to Capes (PMF) and CNPq (LRR proc. n. 305956/2010-8 and SSN proc. n. 303897/2008-2) and FAPESP (SSN, proc. n. 07/50836-7) for fellowships awarded to the authors.



J. R. Aldrich 1995. Chemical communication in true bugs and exploitation by parasitoids and commensals, pp. 318–363 In R. T. Cardé and W. J. Bell [eds.], Chemical Ecology of Insects II, Chapman & Hall, New York. Google Scholar


J. R. Aldrich , and A. Zhang 2002. Kairomone strains of Euclytia flava (Townsend), a parasitoid of stink bugs. J. Chem. Ecol. 28: 1565–1582. Google Scholar


P. H. Arnaud 1978. A host-parasite catalog of North American Tachinidae (Diptera). USDA, Misc. Publ. 1319, Washington, DC. 860 pp. Google Scholar


M. Borges , M. Birkett , J. R. Aldrich , J. E. Liver , M. Chiba , Y. Murata , R. A. Laumann , J. A. Barrigossi , J. A. Pickett , and M. C. B. Moraes 2006. Sex attractant pheromone from the rice stalk stink bug, Tibraca limbativentris (Stål). J. Chem. Ecol. 32: 2749–2761. Google Scholar


M. Coombs , and S. A. Khan 1997. New host/parasitoid records for Australian Pentatomidae, Tachinidae and Braconidae. Austral. Entomol. 24: 61–64. Google Scholar


C. Dupuis 1963. Essai monographique sur les Phasiinae (Diptères Tachinaires parasites d'Hétéroptères). Mem. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. (Zoologie) 26: 1–461. Google Scholar


J. E. Eger Jr., and J. R. Ables 1981. Parasitism of Pentatomidae by Tachinidae in South Carolina and Texas. Southwest. Entomol. 6: 28–33. Google Scholar


J. A. M. Fernandes , and J. Grazia 1998. Revision of the genus Tibraca Stål (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae, Pentatominae). Rev. Bras. Zool. 15: 1049–1060. Google Scholar


E. Gordún , and H. P. Tschorsnig 2008. Wirtsbefunde von Phasiinae (Diptera: Tachinidae) aus Wanzen (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae und Scutelleridae) in Nordost-Spanien. Mitt. Entomol. Ver. Stuttgart 43: 41–42. Google Scholar


J. H. Guimarães 1971. Family Tachinidae (Larvaevoridae) In A Catalogue of the Diptera of the Americas south of the United States. Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, v.104, 333 pp. Google Scholar


J. H. Guimarães 1976. A revision of the genus Cylindromyia Meigen in the Americas South of the United States (Diptera, Tachinidae). Arquivos de Zool. 27: 1–50. Google Scholar


J. H. Guimarães 1977. Host-parasite and parasite host catalogue of South American Tachinidae (Diptera). Arq. Zool. 40: 1–31. Google Scholar


K. Honda 1985. A note on Cylindromyia brassicaria (Fabr.) (Diptera, Tachinidae), a parasite of the sloe bug, Dolycoris baccarum Linnaeus (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae). Jap. J. Appl. Entomol. Zool. 29: 78–80. Google Scholar


I. R. Kay 2002. Parasitism of Eysarcoris trimaculatus (Distant) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) by two tachinid flies (Diptera: Tachinidae). Austral. Entomol. 29: 21–24. Google Scholar


A. A. S. MacIel , R. N. S. Lemos , J. R. Souza , V. A. Costa , J. A. F. Barrigossi , and E. F. Chagas 2007. Parasitismo de ovos de Tibraca limbativentris Stal (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) na cultura do arroz no Maranhão. Neotrop. Entomol. 36: 616–618. Google Scholar


T. O. Markova 1999. New host and distribution data of tachinid flies of subfamily Phasiinae (Diptera, Tachinidae) in Siberia and Russian Far East. — Far East. Entomol. 75: 1–8. Google Scholar


J. F. S. Martins , and M. G. A. Lima 1994. Fungos entomopatogênicos no controle do percevejo-do-colmo do arroz Tibraca limbativentris Stal: Virulência de isolados de Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorok. e Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. An. Soc. Entomol. Brasil 23: 39–44. Google Scholar


J. F. S. Martins , M. G. A. Lima , M. Botton , J. J. Carbonari , and E. D. Quintela 1997. Efeito de Isolados de Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorok. e Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. sobre o Percevejo-do-Colmo do Arroz, Tibraca limbativentris Stal. An. Soc. Entomol. Brasil 26: 277–283. Google Scholar


J. F. S. Martins , M. Botton , J. J. Carbonari , and E. D. Quintela 2004. Eficiência de Metarhizium anisopliae no controle do Percevejo-do-Colmo Tibraca limbativentris (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) em lavoura de arroz irrigado. Cien. Rural. 34: 1681–1688. Google Scholar


M. Nishiyama , M. Iwasa , and K. Hori 1995. Parasitism by tachinid flies (Diptera, Tachinidae) of heteropterous insects in Tokachi, Hokkaido. Jap. J. Entomol. 63: 159–165. Google Scholar


J. E. O'Hara , and D. M. Wood 2004. Catalogue of the Tachinidae (Diptera) of America north of Mexico. Mem. Entomol. Int. 18: 1–410. Google Scholar


A. Pantoja , M. Triana , H. Bastidas , C. García , D. I. Meija , and M. C. Duque 2007. Damage by Tibraca limbativentris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) to rice in Southwestern Colombia. J. Agric. Univ. Puerto Rico 91:11–18. Google Scholar


V. A. Richter , and T. O. Markova 1999. The tachinid species Cylindromyia umbripennis van der Wulp new to the fauna of Russia (Diptera: Tachinidae). Zoosyst. Rossica. 8: 188. Google Scholar


C. T. Riffel , H. F. Prando , and M. I. Boof 2010. Primeiro relate de ocorrência de Telenomus podisi (Ashmead) e Trissolcus urichi (Crawford) (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) como parasitóides de ovos do percevejo-do-colmo-do-arroz, Tibraca limbativentris (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), em Santa Catarina. Neotrop. Entomol. 39: 447–448. Google Scholar


K. Sâmet , A. Farzâneh , and M. Barkhordâri 1977. Primary list of Diptera (Tachinidae) of Iran. J. Entomol. Soc. Iran 4: 83–86. Google Scholar


X. Sun , and S. A. Marshall 2003. Systematics of Phasia Latreille (Diptera: Tachinidae). Zootaxa, 276: 1–320. Google Scholar


J. P. Sutherland , and V. Bahaeally 2002. Spatio-temporal distribution of Beskia aelops (Walker) (Diptera: Tachinidae) and its potential for the biocontrol of Oebalus poecilus (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Biocontrol Sci. Technol. 12: 513–517. Google Scholar


G. Tillman 2008. Populations of stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) and their natural enemies in peanuts. J. Entomol. Sci. 43: 191–207. Google Scholar


M. C. Vecchio 1993 Parasitoides de adultos de Oebalus ypsilongriseus (DeGeer, 1773) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). An. Soc. Entomol. Brasil 22: 217–219. Google Scholar
Patrícia Menegaz De Farias, Josué Sant'ana, Luiza Rodrigues Redaelli, and Silvio Shigueo Nihei "Tachinid Flies Associated with Tibraca limbativentris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)," Florida Entomologist 95(1), 221-223, (1 March 2012).
Published: 1 March 2012
Back to Top