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1 December 2012 A New Species of the Genus Sinoe (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae: Litini) from Florida
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Abstract

A new species of Gelechiidae, Sinoe capsana sp. nov., is reported from southern Florida, USA. All specimens were recently caught in pheromone traps near tomato fields during an early detection survey for the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), a pest native to South America that does not occur in North America. Sinoe capsana sp. nov. is described and imagos and male genitalia are illustrated.

Four species in the genus Sinoe Chambers were recently treated by the first author (Lee & Brown 2012) with identification keys. After the paper was submitted, we received many specimens of Sinoe caught in pheromone traps from a survey for a pest species that does not occur in North America, the tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick). The first traps in this survey were installed on the edges of tomato fields during 2010 in southwestern Florida, USA, and in 2011 and 2012 more traps were installed in other areas in the state. The first moths appeared in one trap in southeast Florida in large numbers in 2011. These moths were considered at first as a possible invasive species from the Neotropical Region; therefore several additional traps were placed and monitored near to the initial detection sites.

After corresponding with Vitor Becker (Brazil), an authority on Gelechiidae of the Neotropical Region, and examining specimens deposited at the Florida State Collection of Arthropods (FSCA) in Gainesville, Florida, it became evident that the specimens from south Florida represent a new species. No older material of this species from Florida was found at FSCA or other collections. However, the gelechiid fauna of the Neotropical Region is poorly known, and it remains uncertain if this species is native to Florida or an introduction from the Caribbean or other Neotropical area. Only 4 species in the genus Sinoe are known in the Nearctic Region.

Sinoe is superficially defined by the following combination of characters: forewing with sub-basal fascia having raised scales and directed obliquely from dorsum towards costa, R5 and M1 stalked, M2 and M3 connate, CuA1 and CuA2 present; the male with bilaterally symmetrical vinculum and valva, valva divided into costal and saccular parts, vinculum a narrow sclerite, gnathos hook shaped with basal and median articulations; the female with a signum (Lee & Brown 2012).

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Delta traps (Fig. 6) with ISCAlure-Tuta™ pheromone (0.5 mg) (ISCA Technologies, Inc., Riverside, California) were operated during a Florida Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey (CAPS) for the tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick). A few traps were operated for a short time in 2010 in southwestern Florida. The formal survey was initiated in April 2011 and continued in 2012. Most traps were installed at the edge of fields of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.; Solanales: Solanaceae) and usually were serviced every 2 weeks, including the period after harvest of tomatoes (Fig. 7). Dissection and slide mounting methods for genitalia followed Clarke (1941), except preparations were stained in eosin and mounted in Euparal. A Leica MS 5 Stereo-Microscope (with magnifications 6.4-16X) was used for examining specimens and slide mounts. Images were made with a Leica stereoscope with Image Pro Plus 5.1, a program for autoformatting. Measurements were made with an ocular micrometer in the stereomicroscope. Terminology for genitalia follows Klots (1970) with modification by Kristensen (2003) for use of phallus instead of aedeagus.

Figs. 1–5.

Adult and male genitalia of Sinoe capsana sp. nov. Lee. 1. Adult dorsal view; 2. Whole structure of male genitalia; 3. Tegumen; 4. Phallus; 5. Vinculum and valva.

f01_873.jpg

RESULTS

Sinoe capsana sp. nov. Lee (Figs. 1–5)

  • Description

    Adult (Fig. 1). Wing length 7–8 mm. Head and thorax white mixed with gray and brown. Antennae brownish gray, 2/3 length of forewing, each flagellomere with basal row of scales dark brown and apical row whitish gray. Labial palpi with outer side of second segment dark brown with two white annuli beyond middle and at tip, inner side white; outer side of third segment white with three dark brown annuli at base, middle and tip, inner side with one dark brown spot at 1/3 and one dark brown annulus at tip. Forewing light gray to brown, costa with three dark brown spots at base, 1/3 length, and 2/3 length; subbasal fascia dark brown near dorsum almost extending 1/4 across the width of the forewing; discal cell with three small dark brown spots; apical area with a small dark brown spot beyond discal cell; dorsum with dark brown spots at 1/3 length and 2/3 length. Hindwing light gray or brown with silvery brown or gray fringe.

    Male Genitalia (Figs. 2–5). Uncus squared, apical corners slightly rounded, slightly concave medially, 0.5 × length of gnathos; gnathos hookshaped, 0.5 × length of tegumen; valva with costal part short, almost 1/3 × length of phallus, with bulbous base; saccular part absent; vinculum projecting posteriorly as pair of digitate processes, apices rounded, sparsely setose from base to apex, almost 1/3 × length of phallus; phallus 1.5 × length of valval costa, without cornuti, fulcrum slightly developed.

  • Female Genitalia. Unknown.

  • Diagnosis

    Sinoe capsana can be distinguished from all allies by the forewing having a dark brown subbasal fascia near dorsum almost extending toward 1/4 across the width of the forewing. The male genitalia differ from S. robiniella by having the uncus squared, apical corners slightly rounded, slightly concave medially; from S. chambersi by having the costal part of valve short, almost 1/3 × length of phallus; from S. kwakae by having the saccular part of valva absent and the phallus with slightly developed fulcrum.

  • Type Material

    HOLOTYPE. Male, USA, Florida, Miami-Dade Co., Homestead, SW 207 Ave., N 25.41092° W -80.52543°, Trap No. J3, 2 Jun 2011, J. Brambila (genitalia slide SLEE0755). Deposited in USNM (U.S. National Museum of Natural History).

    PARATYPES (n = 47). USA: Florida. Collier Co.: 2685 SR 29N, Immokalee, 26.46055N, -81.47960W, Trap No. TA-D-0013b, 31 May 2011, B. Kostyk (6 ♀). Miami-Dade Co.: Same as holotype (7 ♀); Florida City, 37710 SW 217 Ave., N 25.41075° W -80.5255°, Trap No. CTA15, 8 Jun 2011, A. Derksen (6 ♀); same, 8–9 Jun 2011 (2 ♀); Florida City, SW 217 Ave. + SW 392 St., N 25.41452° W -80.5255°, Trap No. CTA14, 8–9 Jun 2011, A. Derksen (3 ♀); Homestead, N 25.42198° W -80.52121°, Trap No. CTA2, 9 May 2011, A. Derksen (6 ♀); Miami, 22301 SW 162 Ave., N 25.55903° W -80.4517°, Trap No. CTA17, 8–9 Jun 2011, A. Derksen (5 ♀); Miami, 22295 SW 162 Ave., Castellow Hammock, N 25.55910° W -80.45177°, Trap No. 9, Jan 2012, A. Derksen (2 ♀). Lee Co.: Ft. Myers, 20900 SR 82, N 26.52414° W -81.61514°, Trap No. TA-D-0023b, 17 May 2011, D. Gaskill (1 ♀, genitalia slide SLEE0754); Ft. Myers, 20900 SR, 82, N 26.52929° W -81.61443°, Trap. No. TA-D-00023a, 17 May 2011, D. Gaskill (2 ♀). Manatee Co.: 75th Street W., Bradenton, N 27.45190° W -82.64506°, Trap. No. TA-D0028a, 2 Jun 2011, D. Gaskill (7 ♀). Deposited in ASUHIC (Hasbrouck Insect Collections at Arizona State University), FSCA, MEM (Mississippi Entomological Museum), and USNM.

    OTHER EXAMINED SPECIMENS. USA, Florida. Collier Co.: Immokalee, 2685 SR 29N, N 26.46055° W -81.47960, Trap No. TA-D-0013b, 31 May 2011, B. Kostyk (7 ♀). Manatee Co., Bradenton, 75th St. W., N 27.45190° W -82.64506°, Trap No. TA-D0028a, 2 Jun. 2011, A. Derksen(10 ♀). MiamiDade Co., Homestead, Trap CTA5, N 25.41092° W -80.52543°, 25 Apr 2011, A. Derksen (38 specimens); same, 9 May 2011, 290 specimens; Homestead, 16800 SW 264 St., N 25.52466° W -80.46239°, Trap No. C-TA-0008, 28 Dec 2011, A. Derksen (5 ♀); Homestead, 15980 SW 248 St., N 25.53435° W -80.45068°, Trap No. TA-C-0006, 6 Feb 2012, A. Derksen (3 ♀); Homestead, 15980 SW 248 St., N 25.53516° W -80.45062°, Trap No. TA-C-0005, 6 Feb 2012, A. Derksen (4 ♀); Miami, 22295 SW 162 Ave., Castellow Hammock, N 25.55910° W -80.45177°, Trap No. TA-C-0003, 9 Jan 2012, A. Derksen (2 ♀).

  • Distribution and Flight Period

    This species has only been found in southern Florida. Specimens were collected during Dec Jul in Florida.

  • Biology

    Host data are lacking for this species. All specimens were collected in traps with pheromones.

  • Etymology

    The specific epithet is in reference to the Florida CAPS program which ran the survey for the tomato leaf miner in Florida.

  • Figs. 6–7.

    Delta trap and tomato field where Sinoe capsana sp. nov. Lee were collected; 6. Delta trap with pheromone plug (the arrow pointing to one specimen of Sinoe capsana sp. nov. Lee), photo taken 2 Jun 2011; 7. Field site in Homestead, Florida where first specimens of Sinoe capsana sp. nov. Lee were trapped, showing general appearance of tomato field after harvest, photo taken 1 Jun 2011.

    f06_873.jpg

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    We thank Richard L. Brown (Mississippi Entomological Museum) for his encouragement to investigate the genus Sinoe. We especially thank Andrew Derksen (Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services [FDACS], Division of Plant Industry [DPI], Cooperative Agriculture Pest Survey program [CAPS], Miami, Florida) who set traps for the Tuta absoluta survey in Florida City and Homestead, Florida, and Leroy Whilby (FDACS, DPI, CAPS), who coordinated the surveys. We also thank Doug Restom Gaskill (USDA, APHIS, PPQ); Lane Southerland (FDACS, DPI); and Barry Kostyk (UF, IFAS, SWFREC) for trapping in Collier, Lee and Manatee Counties. This survey was run by the Florida CAPS program with funds from USDA/ APHIS/PPQ. The use of trade or corporation names in this publication is for the information and convenience of the reader and such use does not constitute an official endorsement.

    REFERENCES CITED

    1. A. B. Klots 1970. Lepidoptera, pp. 115–130 In S. L. Tuxen [ed.], Taxonomist's glossary of genitalia in insects. Munksgaard, Copenhagen. 359 pp. Google Scholar

    2. N. P. Kristensen 2003. Skeleton and muscles: adults, pp. 39–131 In N. P. Kristensen [ed.], Lepidoptera, Moths and Butterflies. Vol. 2. Morphology, Physiology, and Development. The Handbook of Zoology/ Handbuch der Zoologie. Walter de Gruyter. Berlin and New York. 564 pp. Google Scholar

    3. S. Lee , and R. L. Brown 2012. Review of the genus Sinoe (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) with descriptions of two new species. Zootaxa 3332: 49–59. Google Scholar

    Sangmi Lee and Julieta Brambila "A New Species of the Genus Sinoe (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae: Litini) from Florida," Florida Entomologist 95(4), (1 December 2012). https://doi.org/10.1653/024.095.0408
    Published: 1 December 2012
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