Rusty plum aphid, Hysteroneura setariae (Thomas) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is native to North America and now distributed in many countries and regions of the world, including India, Malaysia, Philippines, Vietnam, Thailand, China, Cameroun, Gambia, Ghana, Nigeria, Portuguese Guinea, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Australia, Papua New Guinea, Fiji, Solomon Island, Canada, U.S.A., Honduras, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Guyana, Surinam, Venezuela (C.I.E. Distribution Map A255 1969); India (Garg & Sethi 1978); Sri Lanka (Wijerathna & Edirisinghe 1995); Kenya (Wangai et al. 1991); Bolivia, Peru (Smith & Cermeli 1979); Chile (Heie et al. 1996); Ecuador (Peck et al. 1998); Nepal (Thapa 2000); and Indonesia (Java Island ) (Noordam 2004).
Hysteroneura setariae is a heteroceous between Prunus sp., usually P. domestica and Poaceae in North America. This insect is a pest of rice, wheat, sugar cane, and maize (Blackman & Eastop 2000; Stoetzel & Miller 2001). It has also been reported as pest of soybean (Jahn et al. 2005). On rice, the aphid feeds on leaves and un-ripened grains. Moderately infested grains show brown necrotic spots. A heavy infestation on milk-stage rice grains results in empty grains and turns all spikelets brown and chaffy (Akibo-Betts & Raymundo 1978). Severe rice damage caused by this aphid have been reported from countries such as Sierra Leone (Akibo-Betts & Raymundo 1978), India (Garg & Sethi 1978), and Nigeria (Akinlosotu 1977). In Java, Indonesia, H. setariae was collected from 33 species of weed but not from rice (Noordam 2004).
The rusty plum aphid can also indirectly damage plants by vectoring various plant viruses, including cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) (Coudriet 1962), sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) (Harborne 1988), bermuda grass mosaic virus (BgMV) (Masumi et al. 2011), barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) (Wangai et al. 1991), soybean mosaic virus (SMV) (Quimio & Calilung 1993; Wijerathna & Edirisinghe 1995), guinea grass mosaic virus (GGMV) (Kukla et al. 1984), onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV), maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV), zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) (Blackman and Eastop 2000), and peanut stripe virus (PStV) (Saleh et al. 1989). However, the aphid is not known to transmit any viral diseases of rice (Jahn et al. 2005).
In mid Jul 2012, an unknown aphid colony was found naturally infesting rice in the greenhouse of the Department of Plant Pests and Diseases, Faculty of Agriculture, Hasanuddin University, Makassar Indonesia. Aphid individuals were found mostly on the peduncles of panicles, some on the spikelets, and very few on the leaves. The aphids excreted honey dew and left their exuviae on the leaves and panicles. Microscopic examinations showed that the aphid characteristics matched with the published characteristics of rusty plum aphid, H. setariae (Stoetzel & Miller 2001; Walker 2007). Body is small and brown with dark siphunculi and the cauda unusually long and pale. The third and fourth antennal segments are pale to colorless but the distal segments are dark to black in color. Proximal and distal portions of tibiae are pale to colorless and dark to black in color, respectively. The hind wings of alates are unusual with a single oblique vein. The nymphs are rusty brown or deep purple. Aphid samples were sent to Dr. Susan E. Halbert, Florida Department of Agriculture, Division of Plant Industry, for confirmation of H. setariae identity of the samples. Voucher specimens are deposited at Florida State Collection of Arthropods (FSCA) with accession numbers: E2012-6769 - E2012-6771. Literature searches indicated that this is the first record of rusty plum aphid occurrence in the South Sulawesi Province and the Island of Sulawesi for that matter. In addition, the finding is also the first record of rusty plum aphid infestation on rice in Indonesia.
Initial introduction of the aphids into the greenhouse was most likely through flowering rice plants cv. ‘Cisadane’ brought from a farmer's rice field into the greenhouse chamber. However, the presence of the aphid was not recognized until the panicles were fully developed. During a subsequent visit to the field, H. setariae individuals were found on the rice plants adjacent to a sugar cane field. Hence, it is possible that the aphid infestation on the rice plants originated from the sugar cane plants whose propagating materials were imported from other countries.
The ability of the aphid to live and reproduce on rice seedlings were assessed by transferring a single adult aptera on a 7 day-old seedling confined in a small cage. Ten seedlings were used in this trial. The number of aphids in each cage was determined every 24 h for 3 days. The results showed that H. setariae was not capable of surviving and reproducing on rice seedlings. All aphids died 48 h after they were transferred onto the seedlings. In the greenhouse, the aphid preferred to feed on panicle peduncles, followed by spikelets, and leaves with the average percentages of aphids found were approximately 81, 18, and 1%, respectively.
The first record of the occurrence of rusty plum aphid, Hysteroneura setariae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on rice in Indonesia and its presence in South Sulawesi Province is reported. Hysteroneura setariae could not survive on 7 day-old rice seedlings and preferred feeding on panicle peduncles and spikelets rather than on leaves. A survey to determine the distribution of H. setariae and its potential damage to rice crop in the province is currently underway.
Key Words: rusty plum aphid, geographical distribution, plant virus vector
Se informa sobre la primera aparición del áfido de la ciruela, Hysteroneura setariae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) sobre el arroz en el sur de Sulawesi de Indonesia. Este áfido es también el primer áfido colonizador del arroz reportado en la región. El H. setariae no pudo sobrevivir en plántulas de arroz de 7 días de edad y preferió alimentarse sobre los pedúnculos de la panícula y espiguillas que las hojas. Un estudio para determinar la distribución de H. setariae y su daño potential a los cultivos de arroz en la provincia está en curso.
Palabras Clave: áfido del ciruelo, distribution geográfica, vector de virus de plantas
I am deeply thankful to Dr. Susan E. Halbert, Florida Department of Agriculture, Division of Plant Industry for promptly confirming the identity of H. setariae of the aphid specimens sent to her.