Open Access
How to translate text using browser tools
21 April 2021 Genetic Diversity in the Threatened Freshwater Mussel Lampsilis powellii
Ashley D. Walters, Kristina N. Taynor, David J. Berg
Author Affiliations +

North America is home to the greatest share of the world's freshwater mussel diversity; however, more than 70% of its ∼300 species are endangered or threatened. Lampsilis powellii, the Arkansas Fatmucket, is endemic to Arkansas and is now restricted to upstream reaches of the Ouachita and Saline rivers, but the species is declining within this small range. Conservation actions such as augmenting or reintroducing populations may be necessary, but they require knowledge of the distribution of genetic variation within and among extant populations. We analyzed population structure between the South Fork Ouachita River and Saline River using a 607-base-pair region of the mitochondrial COI gene and 14 microsatellites designed for Lampsilis abrupta. COI sequences showed little variation, and the most common haplotype was present in both rivers. Our mtDNA sequences were indistinguishable from those of L. siliquoidea deposited on GenBank, but we were unable to make conclusions about the taxonomic distinctiveness of L. powellii. Microsatellites showed heterozygote deficiencies for most loci and revealed little evidence of population structure between the two rivers. Overall, our results show low genetic diversity in L. powellii, which may reflect its small population size due to its long history of geographic isolation compounded by anthropogenic habitat destruction and fragmentation. Further genetic analyses of lampsiline taxa are needed to establish species limits for Lampsilis in the Interior Highlands.


Small, isolated populations lose rare alleles through genetic drift, and such reductions in genetic diversity can make species more vulnerable to extinction because greater diversity increases adaptability and long-term population persistence (Reed and Frankham 2003; Hoffman et al. 2017). As a result, imperiled species face increased probabilities of extinction because small populations leave them vulnerable to the interacting effects of genetic drift, demographic change, and environmental stochasticity. Such species are at risk of entering a so-called extinction vortex (Gilpin and Soulé 1986). More than 70% of North American freshwater mussel species (families Unionidae and Margaritiferidae) are imperiled, and many survive only in small, isolated populations (Williams et al. 1993).

Lampsilis powellii (Lea, 1852), the Arkansas Fatmucket, is a federally threatened unionid mussel with a narrow historical distribution restricted to Interior Highlands portions of the Ouachita, Saline, and Caddo rivers in south-central Arkansas, USA (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1990). Populations of upland fishes and mussels in many Interior Highlands streams are proposed to have been isolated from each other historically by long stretches of lowland habitat in the Mississippi Embayment, created when the lower reaches of these streams were buried under sediment deposited by high sea levels during interglacial periods (Mayden 1988; Haag 2010). The range of L. powellii has been fragmented further by dams, which destroyed suitable habitat for this species. Dams also restrict fish movement, which, in turn, restricts mussel dispersal and gene flow because mussel larvae are obligate parasites on fishes. Lampsilis powellii currently survives in only two isolated populations separated by impoundments, in the upper Ouachita and upper Saline river systems.

We examined population genetic structure and genetic variation of L. powellii from remaining populations using a 607-base-pair (bp) region of the mitochondrial COI gene and 14 nuclear microsatellite loci. Given historical and recent barriers to dispersal, we expected to observe reduced genetic diversity and limited connectivity among populations compared to more widespread mussel species. We identified patterns of genetic variation and population structure in L. powellii, which will be useful for assessing its conservation status and implementing population restoration efforts.


We obtained swab samples from the mantle or foot of 42 individuals: 15 individuals from one site on the South Fork of the Ouachita River, and 27 individuals from four sites on the Saline River (Fig. 1). Genomic DNA was extracted using ArchivePure DNA Cell/Tissue kits (5 Prime, Gaithersburg, MD, USA). The mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene was amplified with primers LCO22me2 and HCO700dy2 using conditions developed by Walker et al. (2006) following the specifications included with GoTaq Master Mix (Promega Corporation, Madison, WI, USA) in 20 µL reactions. Clean-up of polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) was performed with a QIAquick gel extraction (Qiagen, Inc., Germantown, MD, USA) with 35 µL of the PCR product. We used the above primers for cycle sequencing and carried out reactions using BigDye Terminator v3.1 Cycle Sequencing Kit (Applied Biosystems, Inc., Waltham, MA, USA) with the default protocol. Cycle sequencing products were purified with the EDTA/sodium-acetate/ethanol protocol included with the BigDye kit and analyzed on an ABI Genetic Analyzer (Applied Biosystems).

We assembled, edited, and aligned sequences with Sequencher (Gene Codes Corporation, Ann Arbor, MI, USA) and verified an open reading frame and absence of primer sequences. DNASP v5.10 (Librado and Rozas 2009) was used to estimate population genetic indices from mtDNA sequences, including number of haplotypes (H), mean number of bp differences (K), and mean nucleotide diversity (π) over the pooled data set and within each river. A 95% confidence parsimony network was created in PopArt v1.7 (Leigh and Bryant 2015), and multiple connections between haplotypes were simplified using methods described by Fetzner and Crandall (2003).

Fourteen of 15 microsatellite primers designed for Lampsilis abrupta (Eackles and King 2002) were successfully optimized in L. powellii. Forward primers for each PCR were labeled with a 5′ fluorescent tag (6-FAM, NED, PET, or VIC) for visualization. We amplified microsatellite loci in 10 µL reactions using GoTaq Master Mix (Promega), 0.5 µM of fluorescently labeled forward and reverse primer, and 10 ng of DNA template carried out under the following conditions: initial denaturing at 94°C for 2 min; 35 cycles of 94°C for 40 s, variable annealing temperature for 40 s (Appendix A1), 72°C for 1 min; and a final extension at 72°C for 5 min. We performed fragment analysis on an ABI 3730 Genetic Analyzer with LIZ600 size standard (Applied Biosystems). PEAKSCANNER v1.0 (Applied Biosystems) was used to score alleles, and TANDEM v1.07 (Matschiner and Salzburger 2009) was used to assign integer numbers to DNA fragment sizes.

We estimated null allele frequencies using the Brookfield I (1996) method as calculated in MICROCHECKER (van Oosterhout et al. 2004). We used GenAlEx v6.3 (Peakall and Smouse 2006) to estimate mean number of observed alleles per locus (NA) and number of private alleles (NP) and to calculate observed and expected heterozygosities (HO and HE) for each population. Allelic richness (AR) was computed via rarefaction using FSTAT v2.9.3 (Goudet 1995) to estimate the total number of alleles in the population given the sample size. GENEPOP v4.0.10 (Rousset 2008) was used to conduct exact tests of pairwise linkage disequilibrium and to test whether genotype frequencies met Hardy–Weinberg expectation.

Population genetic structure was visualized by conducting a principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) in GenAlEx using a covariance matrix created from all polymorphic loci. A permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA; n = 9999 permutations) was used to determine the significance of the PCoA clusters utilizing the adonis function within the vegan package (Oksanen et al. 2017) in R (R Core Team 2016). FreeNA was used to assess the degree of genetic differentiation among rivers by calculating pairwise FST values employing the ENA (excluding null alleles) correction, which has been shown to effectively correct for the positive bias of FST that may result from the presence of null alleles (Chapius and Estoup 2007).


We successfully sequenced mitochondrial DNA for 29 individuals and recovered nine COI haplotypes with a length of 607 bp. Sequences are available on GenBank (accession nos. MT762680–MT762708).

Three clusters of haplotypes were present, separated by 34–46 mutational steps (>5% of total sequence length; Fig. 2). The first cluster consisted of a common haplotype found in 13 individuals from the Saline River and seven individuals from the Ouachita River, two individuals of a second haplotype limited to the Saline River that differed from the common haplotype by two bp, and a singleton haplotype from the Ouachita River that differed from the common haplotype by four bp. Our most common haplotype was identical to a GenBank L. siliquoidea haplotype from the upper Mississippi River (accession no. MK672781.1; see Inoue et al. 2019).

A second cluster contained three singleton haplotypes from two sites in the Saline River that differed from each other by four or five bp. These haplotypes differed from those in the first cluster by 34–39 bp and corresponded to Lampsilis hydiana sequences on GenBank (accession no. MK672683.1).

Figure 1.

Sampling localities for Lampsilis powellii in Arkansas, USA.


Table 1.

Summary statistics for COI sequences and 14 microsatellite loci for Lampsilis powellii in the Ouachita and Saline rivers, Arkansas, USA. Individuals identified as Lampsilis hydiana and Actinonaias ligamentina based on COI sequences are not included (see text). N = number of individuals sampled. Genetic diversity metrics are number of haplotypes (H), mean number of bp differences between all pairs of individuals (K), nucleotide diversity (π), mean number of observed alleles (NA), rarefied allelic richness (AR), mean number of private alleles (NP), mean observed heterozygosity (HO), and mean expected heterozygosity (HE).


A third cluster contained three singleton haplotypes from the Saline River that differed from each other by six to nine bp. These haplotypes differed from those in the first cluster by 43–46 bp and were most similar to GenBank sequences for Actinonaias ligamentina (accession no. MK672757.1). We omitted from further analysis the six individuals in clusters two and three representing L. hydiana and A. ligamentina.

There was little genetic diversity among the 23 remaining COI sequences representing L. powellii, and patterns were similar for both rivers (Table 1). There were two haplotypes in each river, the mean number of base-pair differences between all individuals was three, and nucleotide diversity was low.

Microsatellite analyses also showed low genetic variation. We scored a total of 172 alleles over the 14 loci examined, ranging from four to 19 per locus (Tables 1 and 2). Microsatellite genotypes in GENEPOP format are deposited in Dryad ( Mean rarefied allelic richness and heterozygosity across the 14 loci were similar between rivers (Table 1). The mean number of private alleles was twice as high in the Saline than in the Ouachita. We found considerable evidence of null alleles (present at 82.1% of all river-by-locus pairs) and no evidence of linkage disequilibrium. Eighteen of 28 locus-by-river combinations deviated from Hardy–Weinberg expectations after Bonferroni correction, with all showing a heterozygote deficiency consistent with the presence of null alleles.

Table 2.

Genetic diversity at 14 microsatellite loci in Lampsilis powellii from the Ouachita and Saline rivers, Arkansas, USA. N = number of individuals genotyped. Genetic diversity metrics are allelic richness (NA), observed and expected heterozygosity (HO and HE), and null allele frequency. * indicates deviation of heterozygosity from Hardy–Weinberg expectation after sequential Bonferroni correction. Bold values indicate null allele frequencies that are significantly different from zero at P ≥ 0.05.


Figure 2.

Haplotype network for samples identified as Lampsilis powellii derived from 607 bp region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. Each circle represents a unique haplotype. The number within each circle represents the number of individuals having that haplotype; circles without numbers represent a single individual. Black dots and tick marks represent missing haplotypes.


Populations of L. powellii showed little evidence of significant divergence. The first PCoA axis separated the two rivers but explained only 11.6% of total microsatellite variation (Fig. 3a). The second and third axes accounted for 20.5% and 27.3% of the variation, respectively; however, we could not infer any geographical patterns from these axes (Fig. 3b). The ENA-corrected estimate of pairwise FST among rivers was 0.076, while the PERMANOVA failed to reject the null hypothesis of no difference between rivers (F = 1.72, P = 0.11). The uncorrected estimate of FST (0.085) was similar to the ENA-corrected estimate; its slightly higher value was likely due to the presence of null alleles.

Figure 3.

Results of principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) for 14 microsatellite loci of Lampsilis powellii from Arkansas, USA. Red squares represent individuals from the Saline River, and blue circles represent Ouachita River individuals.



Lampsilis powellii seems to have maintained only a limited amount of intraspecific genetic diversity at both mtDNA and nDNA loci compared with other mussel taxa (Elderkin et al. 2007, 2008; Jones 2009). This limited amount of genetic diversity may be a result of the small sample sizes in our study, which is a common issue with rare species. However, the number of mtDNA haplotypes we found was lower than the number found in other endangered mussel species, even though samples sizes were comparable (Zanatta and Murphy 2008; Jones 2009; Menon et al. 2019). In the Ouachita River, Cumberlandia monodonta showed similarly low levels of mtDNA diversity with the presence of a single COI haplotype (Inoue et al. 2014b). Additionally, genetic diversity in L. powellii was lower than in other unionid studies that employed the Eackles and King (2002) microsatellite primers (Kelly and Rhymer 2005; Menon et al. 2019). For example, genetic diversity was lower in L. powellii than in Great Lakes populations of L. cardium (NA range: 3.3–13.7; HO range: 0.42–0.85; Hewitt et al. 2019). Additionally, mean allelic richness was lower in L. powellii than for L. siliquoidea in the St. Clair River (AR = 8.7–11.4; Rowe and Zanatta 2015). The latter two comparisons are noteworthy because those populations are geologically young and colonized the Great Lakes region only after Pleistocene glaciation. Mussel populations in the Interior Highlands are likely much older and would be expected to contain higher genetic diversity. The low genetic diversity of L. powellii may reflect its small population size due to its long history of isolation compounded by anthropogenic habitat destruction and fragmentation.

The Interior Highlands of North America is a biodiversity hotspot with high endemicity for a variety of aquatic organisms including mussels, fishes, crayfishes, and salamanders (Mayden 1985; Haag 2010). The region's distinctive aquatic fauna is believed to have been formed by vicariant pre-Pleistocene events, followed by repeated periods of isolation due to Pleistocene glaciations (Mayden 1988), resulting in genetically divergent populations. Not only do isolated populations with restricted gene flow lose genetic diversity, they also can exhibit an increase in population structuring (Paetkau et al. 1995). However, the limited genetic divergence between rivers that we found suggests a single panmictic population in relatively recent times. Despite the presence of the potential dispersal barrier of lowland habitats in the lower reaches of the Saline and Ouachita rivers, a mobile fish host may have allowed some dispersal across this barrier (e.g., Galbraith et al. 2015). Host fishes for L. powellii are currently unknown, but most Lampsilis are specialists on black basses (Micropterus), which can undertake substantial movements (Haag 2012; Schall et al. 2019). Identification of fish hosts of L. powellii is needed for inferring its potential dispersal ability and gene flow.

Interestingly, we were unable to differentiate L. powellii from L. siliquoidea COI sequences from the Mississippi River (Inoue et al. 2019). Whole mitochondrial genome sequencing identified a divergent protein-coding region, the f-orf gene, which distinguished between L. siliquoidea and L. powellii (Robicheau et al. 2018). However, when we examined the COI region of the whole mtDNA genome submitted to GenBank by Robicheau et al. (2018; accession no. NC_037720) and a partial COI gene sequence (Breton et al. 2011; accession no. HM849705) labeled L. powellii, they matched sequences identified as L. hydiana from another study (Inoue et al. 2019). At this time, we are unable to make conclusions about the taxonomic distinctiveness of L. powellii. Because the available genetic data are limited to mtDNA sequences and a few microsatellite loci, a high-resolution genomic approach may be necessary to elucidate the taxonomic position of L. powellii among other Lampsilis species from this region.

Lampsilis siliquoidea and L. powellii are difficult to distinguish morphologically (Harris et al. 2004; Harris et al. 2010; Krebs et al. 2013). Geometric morphometric analyses can be used to differentiate morphologically similar species (Inoue et al. 2014a; Riccardi et al. 2019), and this technique also may be useful for differentiating L. powellii from other co-occurring lampsilines from the Interior Highlands. The presence in our dataset of samples referable to A. ligamentina and L. hydiana from individuals originally identified in the field as L. powellii underscores the difficulty of identifying lampsiline species in this region of high evolutionary diversification.

Our results have important conservation implications. The lack of a clear genetic signal for differentiating L. powellii, L. siliquoidea, and L. hydiana shows that further research is necessary to evaluate the phylogenetic status of these species. Our results suggest that between-river genetic divergence in L. powellii is very low, although both populations contain private microsatellite alleles. However, our small samples sizes make this conclusion preliminary; population genomic methods are likely necessary to determine whether significant between-river divergence exists for L. powellii. Resolution of these issues is critical for designing conservation strategies for the small populations of L. powellii that remain in the Saline and upper Ouachita basins.


Swab samples were provided by personnel of the Arkansas Game and Fish Commission (AGFC). We thank Bill Posey (AGFC), Chris Davidson (U.S .Fish and Wildlife Service), Kendall Moles (AGFC), and Chris Barnhart (Missouri State University) for productive discussions that helped to shape our understanding of the results. Comments from two anonymous reviewers and Editor Wendell Haag greatly improved this manuscript. Funding was provided by the AGFC and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.



Breton, S., D. T. Stewart, S. Shepardson, R. J. Trdan, A. E. Bogan, E. G. Chapman, A. Ruminas, H. Piontkivska, and W. R. Hoeh. 2011. Novel protein genes in animal mtDNA: A new sex determination system in freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionoida)? Molecular Biology and Evolution 28:1645–1659. Google Scholar


Brookfield, J. F. Y. 1996. A simple new method for estimating null allele frequency from heterozygote deficiency. Molecular Ecology 5:453–455. Google Scholar


Chapius, M. P., and A. Estoup. 2007. Microsatellite null alleles and estimation of population differentiation. Molecular Biology and Evolution 24:621–631. Google Scholar


Eackles, M. S., and T. L. King. 2002. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in Lampsilis abrupta (Bivalvia: Unionidae) and cross-species amplification within the genus. Molecular Ecology Notes 2:559–562. Google Scholar


Elderkin, C. L., A. D. Christian, J. L. Metcalfe-Smith, and D. J. Berg. 2008. Population genetics and phylogeography of freshwater mussels in North America, Elliptio dilatata and Actinonaias ligamentina (Bivalvia: Unionidae). Molecular Ecology 17:2149–2163. Google Scholar


Elderkin, C. L., A. D. Christian, C. C. Vaughn, J. L. Metcalfe-Smith, and D. J. Berg. 2007. Population genetics of the freshwater mussel, Amblema plicata (Say 1817) (Bivalvia: Unionidae): Evidence of high dispersal and postglacial colonization. Conservation Genetics 8:355–372. Google Scholar


Fetzner, J. W., and K. A. Crandall. 2003. Linear habitats and the nested clade analysis: An empirical evaluation of geographic versus river distances using Ozark crayfish (Decapoda: Camaridae). Evolution 57:2101–2118. Google Scholar


Galbraith, H. S., D. T. Zanatta, and C. C. Wilson. 2015. Comparative analysis of riverscape genetic structure in rare, threatened and common freshwater mussels. Conservation Genetics 16:845–857. Google Scholar


Gilpin, M. E., and M. E. Soulé. 1986. Minimum viable populations: Processes of species extinction. Pages 19–34 in M. E. Soulé, editor. Conservation Biology: The Science of Scarcity and Diversity. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Massachusetts. Google Scholar


Goudet, J. 1995. FSTAT (version 1.2): A computer program to calculate F-statistics. Journal of Heredity 86:485–486. Google Scholar


Haag, W. R. 2010. A hierarchical classification of freshwater mussel diversity in North America. Journal of Biogeography 37:12–26. Google Scholar


Haag, W. R. 2012. North American freshwater mussels: Natural history, ecology, and conservation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England. Google Scholar


Harris, J. L., W. R. Hoeh, A. D. Christian, J. L. Walker, J. L. Farris, R. L. Johnson, and M. E. Gordon. 2004. Species limits and phylogeography of Lampsilinae (Bivalvia: Unionidae) in Arkansas with emphasis on species of Lampsilis. Final report to Arkansas Game and Fish Commission, Little Rock, Arkansas. Google Scholar


Harris, J. L., W. R. Posey, C. L. Davidson, J. L. Farris, S. R. Oetker, J. N. Stoeckel, B. G. Grump, M. S. Barnett, H. C. Martin, J. H. Seagraves, M. W. Matthews, R. Winterringer, C. Osborne, A. D. Christian, and N. J. Wentz, N.J. 2010. Unionoida (Mollusca: Margaritiferidae, Unionidae) in Arkansas, third status review. Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science 63:50–86. Google Scholar


Hewitt, T. L., D. A. Woolnough, and D. T. Zanatta. 2019. Population genetic analyses of Lampsilis cardium (Bivalvia: Unionidae) reveal multiple postglacial colonization routes in the Great Lakes drainage. American Malacological Bulletin 37:21–34. Google Scholar


Hoffman, A. A., C. M. Sgrò, and T. N. Kristensen. 2017. Revisiting adaptive potential, population size, and conservation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 32:506–517. Google Scholar


Inoue, K., J. L. Harris, C. R. Robertson, N. A. Johnson, and C. R. Randklev. 2019. A comprehensive approach uncovers hidden diversity in freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) with the description of a novel species. Cladistics 36:88–113. Google Scholar


Inoue, K., A. L. McQueen, J. L. Harris, and D. J. Berg. 2014a. Molecular phylogenetics and morphological variation reveal recent speciation in freshwater mussels of the genera Arcidens and Arkansia (Bivalvia: Unionidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 112:535–545. Google Scholar


Inoue, K., E. M. Monroe, C. L. Elderkin, and D. J. Berg. 2014b. Phylogeographic and population genetic analyses reveal Pleistocene isolation followed by high gene flow in a wide ranging, but endangered, freshwater mussel. Heredity 112:282–290. Google Scholar


Jones, J. W. 2009. Genetics, demography and modeling of freshwater mussel (Bivalvia: Unionidae) populations in the Clinch River, USA. Ph.D. dissertation. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacks-burg. Google Scholar


Kelly, M. W., and J. M. Rhymer. 2005. Population genetic structure of a rare unionid (Lampsilis cariosa) in a recently glaciated landscape. Conservation Genetics 6:789–802. Google Scholar


Krebs, R.A., W. C. Borden, N. M. Evans, and F. P. Doerder. 2013. Differences in population structure estimated within maternally- and paternally-inherited forms of mitochondria in Lampsilis siliquoidea (Bilvalvia: Unionidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 109:229–240. Google Scholar


Leigh, J. W., and D. Bryant. 2015. POPART: Full feature software for haplotype network construction. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 6:1110–1116. Google Scholar


Librado, P., and J. Rozas. 2009. DnaSP v5: A software for comprehensive analysis of DNA polymorphism data. Bioinformatics 25:1451–1452. Google Scholar


Matschiner, M., and W. Salzburger. 2009. TANDEM: Integrating automated allele binning into genetics and genomics workflows. Bioinformatics 25:1982–1983. Google Scholar


Mayden, R. L. 1985. Biogeography of Ouachita highland fishes. Southwestern Naturalist 30:195–211. Google Scholar


Mayden, R. L. 1988. Vicariance biogeography, parsimony, and evolution in North American freshwater fishes. Systematic Zoology 37:329–355. Google Scholar


Menon, A. R., N. M. Ly, A. Long, Y. M. Werner, and C. L. Elderkin. 2019. Conservation genetics of the endangered yellow lampmussel (Lampsilis cariosa). American Midland Naturalist 181:271–289. Google Scholar


Oksanen, J. F. Guillaume Blanchet, M. Friendly, R. Kindt, P. Legendre, D. McGlinn, P. R. Minchin, R. B. O'Hara, G. L. Simpson, P. Solymos, H. H. Stevens, E. Szoecs, and H. Wagner. 2017. Vegan: Community ecology package. R package version 2.4-3. (accessed 30 June 2020). Google Scholar


Paetkau, D., W. Calvert, I. Stirling, and C. Strobeck. 1995. Microsatellite analysis of population structure in Canadian polar bears. Molecular Ecology 4:347–354. Google Scholar


Peakall, R., and P. E. Smouse. 2006. GENALEX 6: Genetic analysis in Excel: Population genetic software for teaching and research. Molecular Ecology Notes 6:288–295. Google Scholar


R Core Team. 2016. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. (accessed 30 June 2020). Google Scholar


Reed, D. H., and R. Frankham. 2003. Correlation between fitness and genetic diversity. Conservation Biology 17:230–237. Google Scholar


Riccardi, N., E. Froufe, A. E. Bogan, A. Zieritz, A. Teixeira, I. Vanetti, S. Varandas, S. Zaccara, K. O. Nagel, and M. Lopes-Lima. 2019. Phylogeny of European Anodontini (Bivalvia: Unionidae) with a redescription of Anodonta exulcerata. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 189:745–761. Google Scholar


Robicheau, B. M., E. E. Chase, W. R. Hoeh, J. L. Harris, D. T. Stewart, and S. Breton. 2018. Evaluating the utility of the female-specific mitochondrial f-orf gene for population genetic, phylogeographic and systematic studies in freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionida). PeerJ 6:e5007. Google Scholar


Rousset, R. 2008. GENEPOP'007: complete re-implementation of the GENEPOP software for Windows and Linux. Molecular Ecology Resources 8:103–106. Google Scholar


Rowe, M. T., and D. T. Zanatta. 2015. Investigating the genetic variation and structure of a native unionid mussel in the Laurentian Great Lakes following an invasion of dreissenid mussels. Biological Invasions 17:351–364. Google Scholar


Schall, M. K., T. Wertz, G. D. Smith, V. S. Blaser, and T. Wagner. 2019. Movement dynamics of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) in a large river-tributary system. Fisheries Management and Ecology 26:590–599. Google Scholar


U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1990. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants: Threatened status determined for the Arkansas Fatmucket, Lampsilis powellii. Federal Register 55:12797–12801. Google Scholar


van Oosterhout, C., W. F. Hutchinson, D. P. M. Wills, and P. Shipley. 2004. Micro-Checker: A software for identifying and correcting genotyping errors in microsatellite data. Molecular Ecology Notes 4:535–538. Google Scholar


Walker, J. M., J. P. Curole, D. E. Wade, E. G. Chapman, A. E. Bogan, G. T. Watters, and W. R. Hoeh. 2006. Taxonomic distribution and phylogenetic utility of gender-associated mitochondrial genomes in the Unionoida (Bivalvia). Malacologia 48:265–282. Google Scholar


Williams, J. D., M. L. Warren, Jr., K. S. Cummings, J. L. Harris, and R. J. Neves. 1993. Conservation status of freshwater mussels of the United States and Canada. Fisheries 18:6–22. Google Scholar


Zanatta, D. T., and R. W. Murphy. 2008. The phylogeographical and management implications of genetic population structure in the imperiled snuffbox mussel, Epioblasma triquetra (Bivalvia: Unionidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 94:371–384. Google Scholar


Appendix A1.

Annealing temperature (TA) for 14 microsatellite loci for Lampsilis powellii.

© Freshwater Mollusk Conservation Society 2021
Ashley D. Walters, Kristina N. Taynor, and David J. Berg "Genetic Diversity in the Threatened Freshwater Mussel Lampsilis powellii," Freshwater Mollusk Biology and Conservation 24(1), 26-33, (21 April 2021).
Published: 21 April 2021
population genetics
Back to Top